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CASE REPORT
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 61-63 Table of Contents     

Dermoid cyst of testis in a 72-year-old man: A rare entity


1 Department of Pathology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati - 517 507, India
2 Department of General Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati - 517 507, India

Date of Submission17-Dec-2008
Date of Acceptance26-Feb-2009
Date of Web Publication26-Sep-2009

Correspondence Address:
Vijay Sreedhar Babu Kinnera
Department of Pathology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati - 517 507
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.56045

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   Abstract 

Dermoid cyst is a mature-type teratoma containing sebaceous material and predominantly tufts of hair or teeth along with skin appendages. It is most commonly observed in the ovary but is rare in the testis, and only a few cases have been reported so far. In most of the reports, the cyst tended to be diagnosed in a younger age group. Here, we report a dermoid cyst of the testis in a 72-year-old man.

Keywords: Dermoid cyst, mature teratoma, testis


How to cite this article:
Babu Kinnera VS, Mandyam KR, Yootla M, Vutukuru VR. Dermoid cyst of testis in a 72-year-old man: A rare entity. Urol Ann 2009;1:61-3

How to cite this URL:
Babu Kinnera VS, Mandyam KR, Yootla M, Vutukuru VR. Dermoid cyst of testis in a 72-year-old man: A rare entity. Urol Ann [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Oct 21];1:61-3. Available from: http://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2009/1/2/61/56045


   Introduction Top


Dermoid cyst is the most common teratoma of the ovary, but is extremely rare in the testis. The incidence of dermoid cyst is unknown, and its rarity may be due to lack of clinical criteria to establish a preoperative diagnosis and the fact that some cases are grouped under mature teratomas. [1] We report a case of dermoid cyst of the testis in a 72-year-old male who presented with right testicular mass, bilateral inguinal hernia, and grade-2 prostatomegaly.


   Case Report Top


A 72-year-old male patient presented with painless right testicular mass and bilateral inguinal swellings of six months duration. There was no history of trauma or infection. Examination confirmed the presence of a right testicular mass of approximately 4.0 Χ 3.5 cm, nontender, smooth surfaced, and varying in consistency (soft cystic, firm to hard). Left testis was normal except for the presence of mild hydrocele. Bilateral direct inguinal hernia was present. Per-rectal examination revealed hard, nontender prostate without surface nodularity suggesting grade-2 prostatomegaly. Ultrasound examination showed an enlarged right testis (4.3 Χ 3.9 Χ 2.9 cm) and epididymis (1.5 Χ 1.4 cm) with heterogeneous echo texture comprising of both cystic and calcific foci (germ cell tumor) and minimal left hydrocele with bilateral inguinal hernia having bowel contents. Preoperative tumor markers, serum a-fetoprotein (<10 IU/lit.) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (4.0 IU/lit.), were unremarkable. Subsequently, the patient underwent right high inguinal orchidectomy and bilateral inguinal hernia repair by mesh. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Macroscopically the testis was measuring 5.0 Χ 4.5 Χ 3.0 cm. On cut-section, there was near-total replacement of testicular architecture by a cystic mass containing flaky whitish keratinous material, hair follicles, and calcified foci [Figure 1]a and b. Histology revealed, fibrotic thickening of tunica vaginalis with obliterated testicular architecture by the presence of a cystic lesion with inner stratified squamous epithelial lining, pilosebaceous apparatii, many hair follicles, luminal lamellar keratin, fibrofatty tissues, calcifications, and striking presence of nodular Leydig cell clusters with lipochrome pigment within the lesional component [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]. Based on these findings a diagnosis of dermoid cyst of the testis was made.


   Discussion Top


Teratomas represent 38% of testicular germ cell tumors in infants and children and 47% in adults. [2] They are classified into three histological subtypes: mature teratoma, immature teratoma, and teratoma with malignant transformation. [3] Mature teratomas are composed of benign well-differentiated structures derived from the ectoderm, endoderm, or mesoderm. Although dermoid cysts are also referred to as mature cystic teratomas or benign cystic teratomas, Mostofi et al, suggest that they should be labeled as dermoid. [2] There are two pathways for testicular teratomas in postpubertal patients - the more common being through intratubular germ cell neoplasia and the less common one, taken by dermoid cyst, is by direct transformation from a nonmalignant germ cell line. [4] Dermoid cyst of the testis should be suspected in a child or adult with a painless testicular mass which has not shown progressive enlargement. The differential diagnosis includes benign lesions such as epidermal cyst, simple cyst, and malignant tumors of the testis with secondary degenerative changes such as choriocarcinoma radiologically.

The tumor markers (α-fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotrophin) which are done preoperatively to assess the presence of testicular neoplasm will be negative in a dermoid cyst. Dermoid cyst of the testis is filled with sebum and contains sweat and sebaceous glands and hair follicles in its fibrous stroma. Bone, cartilage, teeth, and brain tissue may be present. Dermoid cysts are less common than epidermoid cysts, with only scattered case reports in the urology literature. [5],[6],[7] When dermoid cyst contains predominantly ectodermal derivatives, it needs to be differentiated from epidermoid cyst that contains only stratified squamous epithelial lining with luminal lamellar keratin without the presence of adnexe unlike that of dermoid cyst. [8] In all reported cases of testicular dermoid cysts, local excision, enucleation, or orchiectomy have been curative, with no patient developing a metastatic germ cell tumor. Unlike that of present case, if prepubertal child or younger individuals in whom dermoid cyst is considered after clinical, ultrasound, and biochemical investigations should have a frozen section performed first. If the diagnosis is dermoid cyst, then testis-sparing surgery such as enucleation should be attempted if feasible, before considering orchidectomy. [1]

This case is being reported because of its rarity in the older age group and interesting inclusions of nodular Leydig cell clusters within the contents of dermoid cyst of the testis.

 
   References Top

1.Crankson J, Shabra S, Al Hawashim N. Dermoid cyst of the testis. Ann Saudi Med 1997;17:634-35.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Mostofi FK, Sesterhenn IA, Davis CJ Jr. Developments in histopathology of testicular germ cell tumors. Semin Urol 1988;6:171-88.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Mostofi FK, Sobin LH. Histological typing of testis tumors. In: International Histological Classification of Tumors, No.16. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1977.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Ulbright TM, Srigley JR. Dermoid cyst of testis: A study of five post pubertal cases, including a pilomatrixoma-like variant, with evidence supporting its separate classification from mature cystic teratoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:788-93.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Upton JD, Das S. Benign intrascrotal neoplasms. J Urol 1986;135:504-6.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Assaf G, Mosbah A, Homsy Y, Michaud J. Dermoid cyst of testis in five-year-old-child. Urology 1983;22:432-4.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Eason AA, Spaulding JT. Dermoid cyst arising in testicular tunics. J Urol 1977;117:539  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Peterson RO. Urologic pathology. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1992. p. 450-1.  Back to cited text no. 8      


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]



 

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