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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 115-118

Partial orchiectomy and testis intratubular germ cell neoplasia: World literature review


1 Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, USA
2 Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin Public Health, Madison, WI, USA

Correspondence Address:
Wassim M Bazzi
Division of Urology, University of California San Diego, 550 15th St. Unit 508, San Diego, CA 92101
USA
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.84948

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Approximately 5% of all patients diagnosed with testicular cancer may have contralateral intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) and may develop contralateral germ cell tumor. Here, we present a historical review and current literature regarding ITGCN and partial orchiectomy. The PubMed world literature search was performed for articles written in the English language. Search terms used were: Partial orchiectomy and ITGCN, with a return of 322 articles. Articles obtained were from the United States, Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands as well as a few case reports from Australia, France, Turkey and Spain. A critical review of the literature was performed. Partial orchiectomy is an option for the management of testicular malignancy in a select group of patients in whom radical orchiectomy is not desirable, including those with a solitary testicle, bilateral concurrent malignancies and a desire for paternity or being independent from androgen supplementation. Reports have demonstrated the feasibility of partial orchiectomy, but there are strict surgical criteria; tumor less than 2 cm in size, maintenance of cold ischemia, meticulous dissection to maintain testicular blood supply and biopsying of adjacent testicular parenchyma to ensure negative margins and absence of concurrent ITGCN. Partial orchiectomy is followed by testicular irradiation of 18-20 Gy; this radiation dose reduces fertility but maintains leydig cell function with androgen independence. Patients with a history of testicular carcinoma have a 5% chance of developing a metachronous contralateral tumor. Partial orchiectomy is a technically challenging procedure that requires close follow-up, but may represent a reasonable management option in selected patients.


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