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Table of Contents
ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 3-5  

Saudi Oncology Society clinical management guidelines for renal cell carcinoma


1 Oncology Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Urology, King Khalid National Guard Hospital and Princess Norah Oncology Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Urology, King Khaled University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Oncology, Riyadh Armed Forced Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Urology, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
7 Department of Oncology, National Guard Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
8 Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
9 Department of Medicine, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication2-Apr-2011

Correspondence Address:
Shouki Bazarbashi
Oncology Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh - 11211
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.78548

PMID: 21673849

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   Abstract 

In this report, guidelines for the evaluation, medical and surgical management of renal cell carcinoma is presented. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system, 7th edition. The recommendations are presented with supporting evidence level.

Keywords: Guidelines, genitourinary, Saudi Arabia


How to cite this article:
Bazarbashi S, Al Othman K, Al Otaibi M, Abusamra A, Rabah D, Aljubran A, Murshid E, Al Oraifi I, El-naghi M, Bahader Y, Soudy H, Rehman A. Saudi Oncology Society clinical management guidelines for renal cell carcinoma. Urol Ann 2011;3, Suppl S1:3-5

How to cite this URL:
Bazarbashi S, Al Othman K, Al Otaibi M, Abusamra A, Rabah D, Aljubran A, Murshid E, Al Oraifi I, El-naghi M, Bahader Y, Soudy H, Rehman A. Saudi Oncology Society clinical management guidelines for renal cell carcinoma. Urol Ann [serial online] 2011 [cited 2018 May 23];3, Suppl S1:3-5. Available from: http://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2011/3/4/3/78548


   Introduction Top


Renal cancer represents the third common genitourinary cancer in Saudi Arabia after urinary bladder and prostate. [1] It accounts for 2.8% of all male cancers and 1.9% of all female cancers. In 2006, a total of 111 cases where diagnosed in males and 78 cases in females. The Age Standardized Rate in males was 2.4 per 100,000 and in females was 1.5 per 100,000 populations.

All cases of renal cell carcinoma should preferably be seen or discussed in a multidisciplinary forum


   1. Pre-Treatment Evaluation Top


1.1. Evaluation of suspicious renal cancer:

1.1.1. History and physical examination

1.1.2. Blood count, renal and hepatic profile

1.1.3. CT scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis

1.1.4. Urine analysis

1.1.5 Urine cytology if suspicious urothelial cancer

1.1.6. Kidney biopsy is not indicated except in selected cases

1.1.7. CT brain and bone scan only if clinically indicated


   2. Staging Top
[2]

The American Joint Commission on Cancer Staging TNM 7 th edition was used


   3. Risk Stratification for Metastatic RCC Top


The Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer center risk classification for metastatic disease will be used: [3] Risk factors are:

3.1. A Karnofsky performance status (KPS) of <80%

3.2. Serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level >1.5 times the upper limit of normal

3.3. Corrected serum calcium >10 mg/dL (2.5 mmol/L)

3.4. Hemoglobin concentration below the lower limit of normal

3.5. No prior nephrectomy (i.e., no disease-free interval)

Each of the above gives a score of one. Patients will be classified according to the total score as follows:

0 points Low risk

1, 2 points Intermediate risk

3, 4, 5 points High risk


   4. Treatment Top


4.1. Localized disease (stage I-III): treatment is surgical excision. The following should be considered for surgery:

4.1.1. Nephron sparing surgery is indicated if surgically possible in:

4.1.1.1. Tumor less than 4 cm (EL-1)

4.1.1.2. Bilateral disease

4.1.1.3. Solitary kidney (anatomic or functional)

4.1.1.4. Patients at high risk for recurrent RCC (e.g. Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome)

4.1.2. Radical nephrectomy both open or laparoscopic are acceptable, however laparoscopic is preferable in experienced centers (EL-1)

4.1.3. Lymph node dissection is not indicated. Clinically resectable enlarged lymph nodes should be removed at the time of nephrectomy (EL-3)

4.1.4. Adrenal gland can be spared except in large upper pole tumors (EL-3)

4.1.5. No adjuvant therapy is of known benefit in complete resection (EL-1)

4.1.6. Follow up: No standard follow-up protocol is recommended.

4.2. Metastatic/advanced unresectable disease: several scenarios are possible and should be considered:

4.2.1. Potentially resectable primary with solitary metastasis or multiple resectable lung metastasis: those patients should undergo primary nephrectomy and resection of the metastatic lesion/s (EL-2). [4] Following complete resection no further therapy is indicated (EL-3).

4.2.2. Potentially resectable primary and multiple metastasis: those patients should undergo resection of the primary tumor if in good performance status (EL-1), [5],[6] then should start systemic therapy as follows:

4.2.2.1. Clear cell histology, good and intermediate risk: options are Sunitinib [7] (EL-1), Bevacizumab and Interferon a-2a [8],[9] or pazopanib [10] (EL-1).

4.2.2.2. Clear cell histology and poor risk: Temsirolimus [11] (EL-1)

4.2.2.3. Non-clear cell histology: Temsirolimus (EL-2) [12] or Sunitinib [13] (EL-2), or Sorafenib [14] (EL-2). Medullary and collecting duct carcinoma should be treated with platinum-based chemotherapy [15],[16] (EL-3)

4.2.3. Unresectable primary with or without metastatic disease: those patients with good performance status should be offered the systemic therapy as in Item 4.2.2

4.2.3.1. Recurrent disease post-primary nephrectomy:

4.2.3.2. Resectable solitary metastasis: surgical resection should be attempted [17],[18],[19] (EL-2). No systemic therapy is of benefit following complete resection (EL-3).

4.2.3.3. Non-resectable recurrence: treat as in Item 4.2.2

4.2.4. Second-line therapy post-TKI failure: Everolimus (EL-1) [20],[21]

 
   References Top

1.Saudi cancer registry annual report 2006 available from: http://www.scr.org.sa [last accessed on 2006].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Greene FL, Fleming ID, Fritz AG, Balch CM, Haller DG, Morrow M, editors. American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York NY: Springer; 2002  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Motzer RJ, Mazumdar M, Bacik J, Berg W, Amsterdam A, Ferrara J. Survival and prognostic stratification of 670 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:2530-40.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
4.Hofmann HS, Neef H, Krohe K, Andreev P, Silber RE. Prognostic factors and survival after pulmonary resection of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2005; 48:77-81.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Mickisch GH, Garin A, van Poppel H, de Prijck L, Sylvester R. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Genitourinary Group. Radical nephrectomy plus interferon-alfa-based immunotherapy compared with interferon alfa alone in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma: A randomised trial. Lancet 2001;358:966-70.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Flanigan RC, Salmon SE, Blumenstein BA, Bearman SI, Roy V, McGrath PC, et al. Nephrectomy followed by interferon alfa-2b compared with interferon alfa-2b alone for metastatic renal-cell cancer. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1655-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.Motzer RJ, Hutson TE, Tomczak P, Michaelson MD, Bukowski RM, Rixe O, et al. Sunitinib versus interferon alfa in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2007;356:115-24.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.Escudier B, Pluzanska A, Koralewski P, Ravaud A, Bracarda S, Szczylik C, et al. Bevacizumab plus interferon alfa-2a for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A randomised, double-blind phase III trial. Lancet 2007;370:2103-11.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Rini BI, Halabi S, Rosenberg JE, Stadler WM, Vaena DA, Ou SS, et al. Bevacizumab plus interferon alfa compared with interferon alfa monotherapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: CALGB 90206. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:5422-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Sternberg CN, Davis ID, Mardiak J, Szczylik C, Lee E, Wagstaff J, et al. Pazopanib in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results of a randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:1061-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.Hudes G, Carducci M, Tomczak P, Dutcher J, Figlin R, Kapoor A, et al. Temsirolimus, interferon alfa, or both for advanced renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2007;356:2271-81.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Dutcher JP, Szczylik C, Tannir N, Benedetto P, Ruff P, Hsu A, et al. Correlation of survival with tumor histology, age, and prognostic risk group for previously untreated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (adv RCC) receiving temsirolimus (TEMSR) or interferon-alpha (IFN). J Clin Oncol 2007;25:243s.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Choueiri TK, Plantade A, Elson P, Negrier S, Ravaud A, Oudard S, et al. Efficacy of sunitinib and sorafenib in metastatic papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:127-31.  Back to cited text no. 13
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14.Stadler WM, Figlin RA, Ernstoff MS, Curti B, Pendergrass K, Srinivas S, et al. The Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (ARCCS) expanded access trial: Safety and efficacy in patients (pts) with non-clear cell (NCC) renal cell carcinoma (RCC). J Clin Oncol 2007;25:243s.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Oudard S, Banu E, Vieillefond A, Fournier L, Priou F, Medioni J, et al. Prospective multicenter phase II study of gemcitabine plus platinum salt for metastatic collecting duct carcinoma: results of a GETUG (Groupe d′Etudes des Tumeurs Uro-Genitales) study. J Urol 2007;177:1698-702.  Back to cited text no. 15
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16.Strouse JJ, Spevak M, Mack AK, Arceci RJ, Small D, Loeb DM. Significant responses to platinum-based chemotherapy in renal medullary carcinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2005;44:407-11.  Back to cited text no. 16
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17.Kavolius JP, Mastorakos DP, Pavlovich C, Russo P, Burt ME, Brady MS. Resection of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2261-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
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18.Piltz S, Meimarakis G, Wichmann MW, Hatz R, Schildberg FW, Fuerst H. Long-term results after pulmonary resection of renal cell carcinoma metastases. Ann Thorac Surg 2002;73:1082-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
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19.Adam R, Chiche L, Aloia T, Elias D, Salmon R, Rivoire M, et al. Hepatic resection for noncolorectal nonendocrine liver metastases: analysis of 1,452 patients and development of a prognostic model. Ann Surg 2006;244:524-35.  Back to cited text no. 19
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20.Motzer RJ, Escudier B, Oudard S, Hutson TE, Porta C, Bracarda S, et al. Efficacy of everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Lancet 2008;372:449-56.  Back to cited text no. 20
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21.Motzer RJ, Escudier B, Oudard S, Hutson TE, Porta C, Bracarda S, et al. Phase 3 trial of everolimus for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Final results and analysis of prognostic factors. Cancer 2010;116:4256-65.  Back to cited text no. 21
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