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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 135-136  

Urological concern and postcrisis Japanese nuclear accident


Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok, Thailand

Date of Web Publication3-May-2012

Correspondence Address:
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160
Thailand
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.95578

PMID: 22629018

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How to cite this article:
Wiwanitkit V. Urological concern and postcrisis Japanese nuclear accident. Urol Ann 2012;4:135-6

How to cite this URL:
Wiwanitkit V. Urological concern and postcrisis Japanese nuclear accident. Urol Ann [serial online] 2012 [cited 2020 Jan 21];4:135-6. Available from: http://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2012/4/2/135/95578

Sir,

The nuclear accident is a totally unwanted episode. The present concern on nuclear hazard is the accidental leakage of radioactive materials from the Japanese disrupted nuclear power plant after the attack of the earthquake and tsunami. It is conclusive that the leaked nuclear materials are hazardous to exposed population. Although there are a lot of evidences of the health disorders due to exposure to radioactive materials, the specific evidences on the urological system are few. Here, the author performs a short review using the standard database, PubMed search, focusing on the urological concern and nuclear leak crisis.

The most widely focused issue of exposure to nuclear material is the induction of cancer. It is clear that exposure can induce thyroid cancer. However, in urology, it is still doubtful whether exposure to nuclear materials can result in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Based on the accumulated evidences from the previous famous nuclear leakage situation, Chernobyl, Romamnenko et al. concluded that "the microenvironmental changes induced by chronic long-term, low-dose IR also appear to promote angiogenesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix that could facilitate invasion as well as progression of pre-existing initiated cells to malignancy." [1] There are many reports on the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis. [2],[3],[4],5]

At least, chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is considered an important stress and can result in DNA dysfunction. [2],[3] As a consequence, the upregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, epidermal growth factor receptors, and other factors, which are important part of pathobiological processes inducing urothelial dysplasia and carcinoma is reported. [4],[5]

Erectile and ejaculation dysfunction is another important urological concern. Impotence is mentioned as an important urogenital complication of exposure to leaked radioactive materials. [6],[7] One-third of highly exposed subjects presented with erectile and ejaculation dysfunction. [6],[7] A "decrease of ejaculate volume and the number of spermatozoa with increasing of part of immovable and degenerated forms" in semen is detectable. [8]

Adverse effect on prostate gland is another concern in urology. It is suggested that "long-term low dose internal ionizing radiation potentially may cause prostate cancer." [9] Indeed, an increased incidence of prostate cancer in exposed subjects of Chernobyl crisis is observed. [10] In an immunohistochemistry study, hyalinosis, sclerosis, fibrosis, and extensive inflammatory infiltration in prostatic tissue of exposed subjects can be detected. [11] If the exposed subjects have underlying benign prostatic hypertrophy, the change of carcinogenesis increases. [9]

In conclusion, exposure to leaked radioactive materials can be hazardous to the urological system. It can induce carcinogenesis as well as other important urological disorders.

 
   References Top

1.Romanenko A, Kakehashi A, Morimura K, Wanibuchi H, Wei M, Vozianov A, et al. Urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by chronic exposure to persistent low-dose ionizing radiation after Chernobyl accident. Carcinogenesis 2009;30:1821-31.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Jargin SV. Re: Involvement of ubiquitination and sumoylation in bladder lesions induced by persistent long-term low dose ionizing radiation in humans and Re: DNA damage repair in bladder urothelium after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. J Urol2007;177:794-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Romanenko A, Morimura K, Zaparin WK, Vozianov A, Fukushima S. DNA damage repair in bladder urothelium after Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. J Urol 2002;168:15-33.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Romanenko AM, Morimura K, Kinoshita A, Wanibuchi H, Takahashi S, Zaparin WK, et al. Upregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and epidermal growth factor receptors, in association with Raf-1, in urothelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ after the Chernobyl accident. Cancer Sci 2006;97:1168-74.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Romanenko AM, Kinoshita A, Wanibuchi H, Wei M, Zaparin WK, Vinnichenko WI, et al. Involvement of ubiquitination and sumoylation in bladder lesions induced by persistent long-term low dose ionizing radiation in humans. J Urol 2006;175:739-43.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.Evdokimov VV, Erasova VI, Demin AI, Dubinina EB, Liubchenko PN. State of the reproductive system of men who participated in the cleaning-up of aftereffects of the Chernobyl AES accident. Med Tr Prom Ekol 1993;(3-4):25-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.Gorpinchenko II. Sexual functions in men subjected to ionizing radiation exposure resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. Lik Sprava 1992;5:23-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.Cheburakov IuIu, Cheburakova OP. Disorders of spermatogenesis in people working at the clean-up of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Radiats Biol Radioecol 1993;33:771-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Vosianov AF, Romanenko AM, Zabarko LB, Szende B, Wang CY, Landas S, et al. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia before and after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine. Pathol Oncol Res 1999;5:28-31.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Oradovskaia IV, Pashchenkova IuG, Feoktistov VV, Nikonova MF, Vikulov GKh, Bozheskaia NV, et al. The epidemiological analysis of monitoring of the immune status in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident for early identification of risk groups and diagnostics of oncological diseases. Report 1. Radiats Biol Radioecol 2011;51:101-16.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.Romanenko AM, Vozianov SO, Zabarko LB. The immunohistochemical determination of p53 and of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the epithelial nuclei of benign prostatic hyperplasia following the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. Lik Sprava 1999;7-8:17-22.  Back to cited text no. 11
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