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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 139-141  

A study to evaluate the effect of ratio of donor kidney weight to recipient body weight on renal graft function


Department of Urology and Kidney Transplant Unit, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission28-Dec-2012
Date of Acceptance29-May-2013
Date of Web Publication15-Apr-2014

Correspondence Address:
Tanveer Iqbal Dar
Department of Urology and Kidney Transplant Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi, 110060
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.130644

PMID: 24833826

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   Abstract 

Aim and Objectives: To study the effect of the ratio of donor kidney weight (dkw) to recipient body weight (rbw) on short and long term graft function in live donor kidney transplant patients.
Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study of 79 live donor kidney transplant recipients. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the ratio of dkw in grams to rbw in kilograms. Serum creatinine in milligrams percent on the day of surgery, 7 th day, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after the surgery was recorded and their means compared.
Results: The comparison showed that the decrease in mean creatinine level was more in group three patients as compared with group 2 and one patients at 7 days (1.04,1.44 and 1.59 in group 3,2 and 1 respectively) and 30 days (1.12,1.36 and 1.45 in group 3,2 and 1 respectively), showing that higher dkw/rbw ratio is beneficial with respect to the early graft function. However this decrease was not statistically significant (P value -0.256 and 0.358 respectively on 7 th and 30 th day). Furthermore long-term function was not different among these three groups.
Conclusion: The ratio of dkw to rbw does not have a significant effect on long-term graft function inspite of an early improvement in the function with increased dkw to rbw ratio.

Keywords: Donor kidney weight, graft function, recipient body weight


How to cite this article:
Dar TI, Tyagi V, Pahwa M, Chada S, Jauhari H, Sharma N. A study to evaluate the effect of ratio of donor kidney weight to recipient body weight on renal graft function. Urol Ann 2014;6:139-41

How to cite this URL:
Dar TI, Tyagi V, Pahwa M, Chada S, Jauhari H, Sharma N. A study to evaluate the effect of ratio of donor kidney weight to recipient body weight on renal graft function. Urol Ann [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Feb 18];6:139-41. Available from: http://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2014/6/2/139/130644


   Introduction Top


The effect of nephron reduction has long been described in animal models as well as in humans [1] and is thought to be a potential non immunologic risk factor for chronic graft dysfunction after kidney transplantation. [2] After transplant the remaining glomeruli in the graft kidney undergo "adaptive hyper-filtration" which ultimately leads to glomerulosclerosis and progressive decrease in graft function. [3] We conducted this study in an attempt to establish a relationship between the ratio of dkw and rbw in live donor kidney transplant patients.


   Materials and Methods Top


It was a prospective study of 79 live donor kidney transplant recipients from may 2008 to september 2011, conducted at Institute of Renal Sciences, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi. Patients were divided in three groups depending on the ratio of dkw in grams to rbw in kilograms. Group 1; dkw/rbw <2, group 2; 2-3, and group 3; >3. Serum creatinine in milligrams percent on the day of surgery, 7 th day, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years after the surgery was recorded and their means compared [Table 1]. Patients with acute tubular necrosis, sepsis, drug toxicity and graft rejection were excluded (total excluded 11). Data was collected prospectively in a meticulous way from patients and hospital information system in accordance with the hospital ethical committee requirements. Donor parameters which were recorded included age, gender and serum creatinine (mg/dl) and recipient parameters included age, weight after dialysis, gender, baseline serum creatinine level (mg/dl) comorbidities, and basic disease which led to end stage renal disease (ESRD). During the surgery all donors were operated by the same team and kidney weighed after defatting (preparing) the graft kidney, by an electronic weighing gadget kept in the dedicated operation theater. All patients were followed with mean follow up period of 14.5 months (range 1 to 39 months). A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted after which pair wise comparison was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test.
Table 1: Distribution of creatinine among the groups with comparison

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   Results Top


The mean serum creatinine value in mg/dl at 7 days, 1month, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years respectively was compared among the three groups. The comparison showed that the decrease in mean creatinine level was more rapid in group 3 patients as compared with group 2 and one patients at 7 days (1.04,1.44 and 1.59 in group 3,2 and 1 respectively) and 30 days (1.12,1.36 and1.45 in group 3,2 and 1 respectively), showing that higher dkw/rbw ratio is beneficial with respect to the early graft function. However this decrease was not statistically significant (P value-0.256 and 0.358 respectively on 7 th and 30 th day). On further follow-up no significant difference in the decrease in creatinine in the three groups was seen at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 36 months [Table 1] and [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Line diagram showing a trend of fall in serum creatinine in the three groups

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   Discussion Top


The deleterious effect of nephron reduction on graft function has been known since long and is thought to be due to "adaptive hyper-filtration" injury of the remaining glomeruli which ultimately leads to glomerulosclerosis. [3] Individuals who have undergone nephrectomy have been shown to develop high blood pressure (BP) and proteinuria decades after the nephrectomy which is in accordance with this hypothesis, and same is the case when a kidney is transplanted into a patient with ESRD. [4],[5] Moreover, superimposed immunologic and non-immunologic events further decrease the initial nephron mass of a transplant and serve only to exacerbate the consequences of hyper-filtration related to its single kidney. Low donor weight (i.e. low nephron mass) as compared with recipient weight has been associated with decreased graft function. The number of nephrons transplanted (directly related to the kidney weight) have an impact on the outcome of the graft following transplant, and it is quite logical to state that more the number of nephrons transplanted better will be the outcome of graft function. [6] The impact of matching the kidney weight (which correlates with both glomerular volume and nephron number) [7] to the rbw has been studied only in relatively small cohorts of patients and only in living donors, [8],[9] where the graft does not have the same accumulating injuries as those from deceased donors. Giral et al., [10] in a study on dkw and rbw incompatibility, assessed the long-term consequences of the ratio of the weight of donor kidney to the weight of the recipient (dkw/rbw ratio) in a multicenter cohort of 1189 patients observed that the graft glomerular filtration rate increased by a mean of 5.74 ml/min between the third and sixth post transplantation months among patients with a low dkw/rbw ratio (2.3 g/kg) which remained stable between 6 months and 7 years but then decreased at a mean rate of 3.17 ml/min per year (P = 0.0001). In addition, low dkw/rbw ratios conferred greater risk for proteinuria, need of more antihypertensive drugs, and segmental or global glomerulosclerosis. Moreover, a dkw/rbw of ≤2.3 g/kg was associated with a 55% increased risk for transplant failure by 2 years of follow-up. They concluded that incompatibility between graft and recipient weight is an independent predictor of long-term graft survival, suggesting that avoiding kidney and recipient weight incompatibility may improve late clinical outcome after kidney transplantation. In another study on 82 living donor kidney transplant patients, Kim et al. [9] concluded that recipients with a low renal mass or mismatching kidney size have higher chances of chronic graft nephropathy and those with higher dkw/rbw ratio have better graft function. Saxena et al. [11] in a study on donor kidney volume to rbw ratio concluded that a low ratio is associated with significantly worse graft function. Kim et al. [12] investigated the impacts of dkw/rbw ratios on the graft function including acute rejection and donor's age in 259 live-donor renal recipients. Renal function showed a positive correlation with the dkw/rbw ratio, but an inverse correlation with the rejection episodes and donor's age. Nicholson et al. [13] in a study on transplant kidney size to recipient weight ratio showed that it was an important determinant of long-term renal allograft function in their study. They concluded that extreme mismatching between allograft and recipient size should be avoided where possible, but the findings presented require confirmation in larger studies before clear recommendations can be made about size matching and kidney allocation. Other study which showed a positive correlation between high dkw/rbw ratio and graft function is by Spatenka et al. [14]

However there are studies which did not show a positive correlation between dkw/rbw ratio and graft function. Vianello et al. [15] in a study " importance of donor/rbw ratio as a cause of kidney graft loss in the short to medium term", on 112 cadaver renal transplant patients, concluded that the dkw/rbw ratio has no major effects on kidney graft function and survival in the short to medium term, which is in accordance with our study.


   Conclusion Top


The ratio of dkw to rbw in live donor kidney transplant patients does not have a significant effect on long term graft function inspite of an early improvement in the function with increased dkw to rbw ratio. However randomized trials and longer follow-up need to be undertaken before a recommendation can be made.

 
   References Top

1.Hostetter TH, Olson JL, Rennke HG, Venkatachalam MA, Brenner BM. Hyperfiltration in remnant nephrons: A potentially adverse response to renal ablation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001;12:1315-25.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Terasaki PI. Deduction of the fraction of immunologic and non-immunologic failure in cadaver donor transplants. Clin Transpl 2003;449-52.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Azuma H, Nadeau K, Mackenzie HS, Brenner BM, Tilney NL. Nephron mass modulates the hemodynamic, cellular, and molecular response of the rat renal allograft. Transplantation 1997;63:519-28.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Kasiske BL, Ma JZ, Louis TA, Swan SK. Long-term effects of reduced renal mass in humans. Kidney Int 1995;48:814-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Ramcharan T, Matas AJ. Long-term (20-37 years) follow-up of living kidney donors. Am J Transplant 2002;2:959-64.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Andrés A, Mazuecos A, García García-Doncel A. A disproportionately greater body weight of the recipient in regards to the donor causes chronic graft nephropathy. A study of paired kidneys. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004;19 (Suppl 3):iii21-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Nyengaard JR, Bendtsen TF. Glomerular number and size in relation to age, kidney weight, and body surface in normal man. Anat Rec 1992;232:194-201.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Douverny JB, Baptista-Silva JC, Pestana JO, Sesso R. Importance of renal mass on graft function outcome after 12 months of living donor kidney transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007;22:3646-51.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Kim YS, Moon JI, Kim DK, Kim SI, Park K. Ratio of donor kidney weight to recipient bodyweight as an index of graft function. Lancet 2001;357:1180-1.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Giral M, Foucher Y, Karam G, Labrune Y, Kessler M, Hurault de Ligny B, et al. Kidney and recipient weight incompatibility reduces long-term graft survival. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010;21:1022-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Saxena AB, Busque S, Arjane P, Myers BD, Tan JC. Preoperative renal volumes as a predictor of graft function in living donor transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 2004;44:877-85.   Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Seun Kim Y, Soo Kim M, Suk Han D, Kee Kim D, Min Myoung S, Il Kim S, et al. Evidence that the ratio of donor kidney weight to recipient body weight, donor age, and episodes of acute rejection correlate independently with live-donor graft function. Transplantation 2002;74:280-3.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Nicholson ML, Windmill DC, Horsburgh T, Harris KP. Influence of allograft size to recipient body-weight ratio on the long-term outcome of renal transplantation. Br J Surg 2000;87:314-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Špatenka J, Seeman T, Foltynová E, Burkert J, Dušek J, Vondrák K, et al. Effect of donor/recipient body weight ratio, donor weight, recipient weight and donor age on kidney graft function in children. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012:820-24.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Vianello A, Calconi G, Amici G, Chiara G, Pignata G, Maresca MC. Importance of donor/recipient body weight ratio as a cause of kidney graft loss in the short to medium term. Nephron 1996;72:205-11.  Back to cited text no. 15
    


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