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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 305-309

Adult testicular cancer: Two decades of Saudi national data


Advanced Medicine Center for Subspecialties, Urology Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Mohammed Abomelha
Advanced Medicine Center for Subspecialties, Urology Clinic, P.O. Box 1882, Riyadh 11441
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_11_17

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There is a paucity of data regarding testicular cancer among Saudis as well as the nonexistent of published national data. Furthermore, a substantial increase of the incidence of testicular cancer among Saudis was lately noted. The aim of the study is to determine the trends and patterns of testicular cancer among adult Saudis using national data over a period of 20 years. The national database of the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) on testicular cancer over the last two decades was studied including epidemiological and histological patterns. The 1004 cases of testicular cancer among adult Saudis reported by the SCR will be the subject of this study. From 1994 to 2013, 1004 cases of testicular cancer among adult Saudis were reported to the SCR, with a steadily significant increase in incidence rate reaching an annual rate of 94 cases in 2013. Age of the patients ranged 15–93 years with a mean of 34.5 years. The most affected age group was 20–34 years, where 51% of all testicular cancer accumulated. Around 85% of testicular cancer is germ cell tumors, while paratesticular and gonadal stromal tumors represent 15%. Of all testicular cancer, seminomas were seen in 40.7%, nonseminomas in 44.6%. Notably, 70.4% of the cases in the first decade were seminomas, while in the second decade 65.9% of the cases were nonseminomas. The subtypes of the nonseminomas were a mixed tumor in 51.6%, embryonal carcinoma in 19.9%, yolk sac tumor in 12.3%, germinomas in 6.7%, teratomas in 6%, and choriocarcinomas in 3.6%. Lymphomas (34.7%) and rhabdomyosarcomas (23.6%) are on the top of the paratesticular tumor group. The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results summary stage of seminomas was localized in 61.6%, regional in 19.8%, and distant in 12.6%, while of nonseminomas was 48%, 15.5%, and 28.5%, respectively. Localized and distant status of seminomas improved over the studied period by 12% and 4% respectively, while this trend was not seen in nonseminomas. The incidence rate is on rising with doubling observed during the last decade. The most affected age group was 20–34 years. Noteworthy was the dominance of the seminomas in the first decade and of the nonseminomas in the second decade. Paratesticular tumors rate is high, third of which were lymphomas. Compared to data from Western countries, notably, there is a high rate of yolk sac tumors and germinomas and a low incidence of choriocarcinomas and embryonal carcinomas. In general, late presentation of all testicular cancer was noted, although a modest stage improvement over the studied period was observed in seminomas, not in nonseminomas.


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