Urology Annals
About UA | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Online submissionLogin 
Urology Annals
  Editorial Board | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact
Users Online: 687   Home Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 94-99

Metabolic evaluation of children with urolithiasis

1 Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Virinchi Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vedamurthy Reddy Pogula
Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore - 524 003, Andhra Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_98_17

PMID: 29416283

Rights and Permissions

Aim: The aim of the study is to identify the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in children with urolithiasis. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; all children below 15 years who are found to have urolithiasis were prospectively evaluated with relevant history, clinical examination, and urine and serum testing. Metabolic workup includes complete urine examination, urine culture and sensitivity, and 24-h urinary analysis (lithorisk profile). Results: A total of 55 patients are included in the study. Forty-two are boys and 13 are girls aged between from 8 months to 15 years. Thirty-three patients underwent stone analysis, primary composition of calcium oxalate stones in 19 (58%), ammonium urate in 4, dahlite in 3 and uric acid in 3, silicon oxide in 2, and struvite in 2 cases. Lithorisk profile was performed in 40 cases (72.7%). The pH range is 5.6–6.2. We noted hypercalciuria in 20 patients (50%), hyperuricosuria in 23 (57.5%), hyperoxaluria in 20 (50%), hypernatriuria in 26 (65%), hypocitraturia in 9 (23%), and hypomagnesuria in 3 (7.5%). Urine calcium-to-creatinine ratio >0.2 was found in 22 (55%) patients. Statistically significant association between hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria (P < 0.04, r = 0.32) and hypercalciuria and hyperuricosuria (P < 0.001, r = 0.51) found in this study. Hyperuricosuria is seen in 75% and 73% of patients with hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria, respectively. Twenty-five children have both lithorisk profile and stone analysis. Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria were noted in 60% of calcium oxalate stone formers each. Elevated urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (>0.2) was seen in 73% of calcium oxalate stone formers. Conclusion: Because of high prevalence of metabolic risk factors and the significant risk of lifelong recurrence, all children with urolithiasis need complete evaluation with metabolic workup.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded332    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal