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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 347-352

Prevalence and characterization of urolithiasis in the Western region of Saudi Arabia


Department of Surgery, Umm-Alqura University; Department of Urology, King Abdullah Medical City at Holy Capital, Makkah, KSA

Correspondence Address:
Assoc. Prof. Anmar M Nassir
Department of Surgery, Medical College, Umm-Alqura University, Makkah
KSA
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DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_56_19

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Objectives: The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of urolithiasis among the Saudi population in Makkah region. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on February 2017 in Makkah region (Makkah, Jeddah, and Taif). Data were obtained through direct interviews with participants, using an 18-questions-self-questionnaire, inquiring about demographic data (age, gender, weight, height, location, and occupation), educational level, history of renal stone disease (symptoms, modality of diagnosis, hospital admission, and previous treatment), and risk factors of stone formation such as family history and daily fluid intake. Results: A total of 1506 individuals were interviewed, including 82% from Makkah, 15.7% from Jeddah, and only 2.3% from Taif. The overall percentage of those diagnosed urolithiasis was 6.2%; including 6.6% males and 5.8% females (P = 0.06). Of those with stones, 5% were medically treated, 1.7% were hospitalized, and 1.2% were surgically managed for stones. There was a positive linear correlation between the prevalence of stones and participants' age group (r = 0.87, P = 0.01). More than 80% of participants were highly educated, which did not impact the prevalence of stones formation (P = 0.14). Urolithiasis was reported by 8.9% obese participants, 5.9% overweight, and 5.4% with normal body mass index (r = 0.68, P = 0.03). When stratified by jobs, stone prevalence significantly increased in retired participants (17.2%) than in workers (8.8%), followed by those without work (7.7%) and finally by students (3.3%) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between urolithiasis and type of drinking water (P = 0.62). Conclusion: The prevalence of urolithiasis in the Western region of Saudi Arabia has not changed much since the previous report, which was 30 years ago. It seems that the middle-aged population in their third decade of life, those who are overweight and obese people are at a high risk of developing urolithiasis.


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