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Primary urethral carcinoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data analysis identifying predictors of cancer-specific survival

1 Division of Urology, Albany Medical Center, Albany, USA
2 Department of Urology; Radiology, University of Alabama At Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
3 Department of Urology, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA
4 Center For Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA

Correspondence Address:
Ilija Aleksic,
Urological Institute of Northeastern New York, 23 Hackett Blvd., Albany, NY 12208
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Objectives: Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) is rare, accounting for <1% of genitourinary malignancies. Current knowledge regarding is founded upon tertiary care centers reporting their experiences. We aim to identify factors predictive of outcomes using a nationwide registry database. Materials and Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 registries database was queried for cases of PUC ranging between 2004 and 2010. To identify PUC cases, ICD-O site code C68.0 was used as a filter, hence identifying PUC with histologic subtypes including urothelial carcinoma (UC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and adenocarcinoma (AC). Tumor characteristics were compared using log-rank analysis, and survival outcomes were compared using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: A total of 419 PUC cases were identified, 250 (59.7%) male and 169 (40.3%) female patients. The most common histology in men was UC (134, 53.6%), followed by SCC (87, 34.8%) and AC (29, 11.6%). The most common histology in women was AC (79, 46.7%), followed by SCC (43, 25.4%) and UC (42, 24.9%). Log-rank analysis illustrated significant difference in cancer-specific survival (CSS) for T-stage, N-stage, M-stage, and stage of PUC with all histological variants combined (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that stage and age were significant for survival, with a risk ratio of 1.033 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.020– 1.046)/year of increased age (P < 0.001) and 3.71 (95% CI, 2.72– 5.05) for patients with regional or distant spread. Conclusions: Knowledge of patient and tumor characteristics that influences survival is paramount in dictating management. The present study illustrates that age and stage are factors significantly associated with CSS in PUC.

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