Outcome following renal autotransplantation in renal artery stenosis
Sunil M Mhaske1, Bhushan Patil2, Sujata K Patwardhan2, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan3, Umesh Ravikant Shelke2, Yash G Pamecha2
1 Department of Urology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Urology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Urology, Vedanayagam Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
Umesh Ravikant Shelke,
Department of Urology, 8th Floor, MSB Building, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: With significant advances in the area of interventional radiology, angioplasty and stenting have become preferred first-line treatment in patients with significant renal artery stenosis. However, not all patients have favorable anatomy to undergo minimally invasive treatments, and reconstruction of the renal artery is an option. In select cases, either improved renal function or maintenance of existing function and sometimes resolution of hypertension can follow surgical treatment.
Material and Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted from August 2010 to June 2016. Patients <45 years of age with uncontrolled hypertension secondary to renovascular hypertension (RVH) and refractory to medical management and renal arterial disease unfavorable for percutaneous intervention were included in the study. All patients were evaluated thoroughly using computed tomography angiography and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scan. Patients underwent autotransplantation either into the right or left iliac fossa. Some kidneys required bench reconstruction of the renal artery and/or its branches before being implanted into either iliac fossa.
Results: Nine patients were included in the study. The mean age was 27 years. Seven were males and two were females. Five patients had bilateral renal artery stenosis. After autotransplantation, initially five patients became free of antihypertensive medicines, but on the follow-up, two patients showed rising trend of blood pressure. The evaluation revealed narrowing at anastomosis site in both patients with salvageable kidney function in one patient. Angioplasty with stenting was done in this patient while the second patient underwent secondary nephrectomy. At 2 years of follow-up, four patients required no antihypertensive medicines.
Conclusion: Autotransplantation can be a successful treatment of severe RVH and should be considered in patients with renal arterial disease unfavorable for percutaneous intervention.