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Predictors for severe hemorrhage requiring angioembolization post percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A single-center experience over 3 years

 Department of Urology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Prakash W Pawar,
219, 2nd Floor, Department of Urology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, College Building, Sion, Mumbai - 400 022, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_75_18

Context and Aim: About 1% of the patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) have bleeding severe enough to require angioembolization. We identified factors which could predict severe bleeding post-PCNL and reviewed patients who underwent angioembolization for the same. Settings and Design: This is a single-institutional, retrospective study over a period of 3 years. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively studied 583 patients undergoing PCNL at our institute from 2013 to 2016. We analyzed nine patients (three from our institute and six referred patients) who underwent angioembolization for severe bleeding post-PCNL. We analyzed the preoperative characteristics, intraoperative findings, and postoperative course of these patients and compared this with those patients who did not have a severe post-PCNL bleeding. Statistical Analysis Used: Fischer's exact test and Chi-square test were used in univariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used in multivariate analysis with a value of P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Three of the 583 patients (0.51%) who underwent PCNL at our institute required embolization to control bleeding. Preoperative characteristics that were significant risk factors for severe bleeding were a history of ipsilateral renal surgery (P = 0.0025) and increased stone complexity (P = 0.006), while significant intraoperative factors were injury to the pelvicalyceal system (P = 0.0005) and multiple access tracts (P = 0.022). Angiography revealed arteriovenous fistula in two patients and a pseudoaneurysm in seven patients. All patients underwent successful superselective angioembolization with preserved renal perfusion in six patients on control angiography postembolization. Conclusions: History of ipsilateral renal surgery, increased stone complexity, multiple access tracts, and injury to the pelvicalyceal system are risk factors predicting severe renal hemorrhage post-PCNL. Early angiography followed by angioembolization should be performed in patients with severe post-PCNL bleeding who fail to respond to conservative measures.

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