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Urolithiasis: Prevalence, risk factors, and public awareness regarding dietary and lifestyle habits in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia in 2017

1 Clinical Nutrition Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Surgery, Urology Section, King Khalid National Guard Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Nada Yasser Baatiah,
Clinical Nutrition Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, P.O. Box: 2407, Jeddah 21451
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_13_19

Introduction: Urolithiasis is a public health concern, yet there are limited studies in our community. This study aimed to provide a current estimate of the prevalence of urolithiasis and to evaluate the public's awareness about dietary and lifestyle habits that impact on urolithiasis among the Jeddah population in 2017. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study design where a self-administered questionnaire was distributed in two major malls in Jeddah. The total number of participants was 2173, who were Saudis and non-Saudis aged 18 years and above. The questionnaire includes five sections: demographics, general information related to urolithiasis, dietary information related to urolithiasis, lifestyle habits, and medical conditions. Results: The overall prevalence of urolithiasis was 11.2%, 48.8% of which had a family history with a first-degree relative. The odds of urolithiasis among males was 1.8 times higher than in females (odds ratio [OR] =1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–2.4). The median age of stone disease was 33 years (25%–75%: 26–42 years). Diabetic individuals were 3.2 times more likely to have urolithiasis when compared to nondiabetic individuals (OR = 3.2, 95% CI, 2.1–4.9). Low level of awareness was observed in this cohort group with a mean score of 37.7%; 64.1% of the population were in the low awareness level, 35.3% were in the medium level, and only 0.6% participants were in the high level of awareness. Conclusion: This study highlights the lack of public awareness about urolithiasis and knowledge about its causation despite the high prevalence. There is a clear need to inform and educate the public on matters relating to the known risk factors associated with urolithiasis.

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