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   2010| September-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 27, 2010

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Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association
Nisar Ahmad Wani, Tasleem Kosar, Ijaz A Rawa, Abdul Qayum
September-December 2010, 2(3):130-133
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68865  PMID:20981204
Adrenal myelolipoma is an unusual, benign and biochemically inactive tumor that is composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue. It is usually diagnosed accidentally and nowadays much more frequently because of widespread use of ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. Adrenal myelolipoma is usually unilateral and asymptomatic, though known to be associated with obesity, hypertension, endocrinological disorders and some malignancies. We report herein two cases of right-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed by multidetector-row CT. One patient was symptomatic because of a large mass in the right upper abdomen, which on imaging with CT was seen to be right adrenal myelolipoma. Another patient had a large left side Bochdalek hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma was incidentally discovered on CT.
  9,738 659 1
Endoscopic placement of double-J ureteric stents in children as a treatment for primary obstructive megaureter
Daniel Carroll, Harish Chandran, Ashwini Joshi, Liam S. L. McCarthy, Karan Parashar
September-December 2010, 2(3):114-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68860  PMID:20981199
Aim: To determine the efficacy and potential complications of double-J ureteric stents in the treatment of persistent or progressive primary obstructive megaureter in pediatric patients within our institution. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-note review of all patients with double-J ureteric stents, between 1997 and 2004, was performed. In all, 38 stents were inserted in 31 patients aged between 2 months and 15 years of age. Complications and results of follow-up investigations and the need for follow-up investigations were recorded. Patients were followed up clinically and radiologically for a minimum of 2 years following stent insertion. Results: Endoscopic placement of double-J ureteric stents in childhood is straightforward and complications are uncommon (8/38 insertions). In non-resolving or progressive primary non-refluxing megaureter, double-J ureteric stenting alone is effective with resolution of primary non-refluxing megaureter in 66% of cases (25/38 insertions). Conclusions: Ureteric stenting provides an alternative to early surgery in patients with primary non-refluxing megaureter. The youngest patient in our series was 2 months old at the time of endoscopic ureteric double-J stent insertion. Endoscopic placement of ureteric double-J stents should be considered as a first-line treatment in the management of persistent or progressive non-refluxing megaureter leading to progressive hydronephrosis or pyonephrosis.
  8,662 921 6
Subcapsular renal hematoma after ureterorenoscopy: An unknown complication of a known procedure
Ujjwal Bansal, Ajit Sawant, Jayesh Dhabalia
September-December 2010, 2(3):119-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68861  PMID:20981200
Renal subcapsular hematoma is not an uncommon complication after extracorporeal short wave lithotripsy, trauma, renal angiographic procedures and spontaneously in patients of malignancy and in patients on anticoagulation. We present a patient who developed renal subcapsular hematoma after ureterorenoscopy, which has not been mentioned in literature ever. Clinical spectrum varies from spontaneous resolution through acute renal failure to Page kidney. Page kidney is the external compression of a kidney usually caused by a subcapsular hematoma associated with high blood pressure and occasional renal failure. It is named after Dr. Irvin Page who first demonstrated in 1939 that wrapping cellophane tightly around animal kidneys could cause hypertension. Various management options are mentioned in literature and depend upon the severity of hematoma. Percutaneous drainage is a successful option for the management of subcapsular hematoma in hemodynamic stable patients.
  8,564 676 4
Diagnostic significance of atypical category in the voided urine samples: A retrospective study in a tertiary care center
Ghadeer A Mokhtar, Mohamed Al-Dousari, Doaa Al-Ghamedi
September-December 2010, 2(3):100-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68857  PMID:20981196
Background: Voided urine samples continue to play an important role in the surveillance of urothelial malignancy and also as a screening mode for high risk patients. In some cases, it is difficult to reliably distinguish changes induced by inflammation, stone or other reactive condition from neoplasm, and these cases are categorized as atypical. The aim of our study is to evaluate the prevalence and the significance of atypical diagnosis in the voided urine samples and also to identify the cytomorphologic features that are seen more frequently in the atypical malignant urine samples. Materials and Methods: All voided urine cytology samples with a diagnosis of atypical urothelial cells, between the period of 2000 and 2009, were obtained from the cytology database. Only those cases with histologic follow-up were included in the study. The cytology and the histology slides were retrieved and reviewed. The following parameters were evaluated: cellularity, cell clusters, nuclear membrane irregularities, hyperchromasia and India-ink type nuclei, the presence of spindle cells and the cytoplasmic characteristics. Results: Out of 72 voided urine samples included in the study, 49 cases (68%) had a positive histologic diagnosis of urothelial malignancy in the follow-up histology; of these (55%) were high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Increased cellularity, papillary cell clusters, nuclear membrane irregularity, hyperchromasia and India-ink type nuclei were observed more frequently in the atypical malignant urine samples, while cytoplasmic vacuolization were seen more in the negative reactive urine samples. Conclusion: The atypical category diagnosis is associated with a significant proportion of urothelial carcinoma. It should be used by the pathologist to convey concern to the clinician in difficult cases that may require close follow-up.
  7,624 614 8
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheter placement: Is omentectomy necessary?
Joseph P Kavalakkat, Santosh Kumar, Karthikeyan Aswathaman, Nitin S Kekre
September-December 2010, 2(3):107-109
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68858  PMID:20981197
Context: There are different methods of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) catheter placement. Open surgical technique is a widely followed method. The complication rate following catheter placement varies and catheter blockage due to omental plugging is one of the main reasons. Aim: To analyze the need for routine omentectomy during CAPD catheter placement. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 58 CAPD catheter placements performed between July 2002 and June 2007. Tenckhoff double cuffed catheter was used in all. The postoperative complications were analyzed. Results: There were 44 males and 14 females. The mean age was 51 years ranging from 15 to 76 years. Of these, 40 (69%) patients underwent omentectomy (group A) and 18 (31%) did not (group B). Laparoscopic and open techniques were performed in 5 and 53 patients, respectively. Omentectomy was not performed in 13 patients with open technique and all the five in the laparoscopic group. One patient in group A developed hemoperitoneum which was treated conservatively. None from group A developed catheter blockage, whereas five (27.8%) from group B developed catheter blockage postoperatively. The median time interval between the primary procedure and development of catheter blockage was 45 days (ranged from 14 to 150 days). Conclusions: Omentectomy during CAPD catheter placement prevents catheter blockage and secondary interventions.
  6,502 688 1
Upper gastro-intestinal bleeding - Rare presentation of renal cell carcinoma
Punit Tiwari, Astha Tiwari, Mukesh Vijay, Suresh Kumar, AK Kundu
September-December 2010, 2(3):127-129
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68864  PMID:20981203
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes 2-3% of all adult malignancies and often diagnosed incidentally. Classical tried of RCC now rarely seen, it behaves unpredictably and having diverge range of clinical manifestation including paraneoplastic syndromes. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to stomach metastasis of RCC is uncommon and to the best of our knowledge, only few cases are reported in world literature and most of them were diagnosed during follow-up after complete treatment of RCC but in our case, it was the primary manifestation of disease. Our case also demonstrates the importance of imaging in undiagnosed cases of upper GI bleeding.
  4,517 505 4
Assessment of angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, serum and urine level changes in superficial bladder tumor immunotherapy by intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin
Behzad Feizzadeh Kerigh, Abdolazim Bahrami, Ali Shamsa, Mehran Abolbashari
September-December 2010, 2(3):91-95
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68855  PMID:20981194
Background and Aim: Bladder tumor is one of the most common genitourinary tumors. Management of non-muscle invasive (NMI) bladder tumors is primarily by transurethral resection (TURBT) followed by intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the most effective adjuvant therapy in NMI bladder tumor. Since angiogenesis is an essential factor in solid tumor progression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important factor in angiogenesis, the aim of this study is the assessment of angiogenic factor, VEGF, serum and urine level changes in superficial bladder tumor immunotherapy by intravesical BCG. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in stage Ta/T1 or carcinoma insitu (CIS), low or high grade, which passed a 2-4 week period from TURBT participated in this study. Blood and urine samples were obtained at first and sixth sessions before instillation of BCG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to obtain VEGF level in samples. Results: Urine and serum VEGF levels did not change significantly before and after BCG therapy. Changes in VEGF level were significantly different neither in low grade against high grade tumors nor in stage T1 against stage Ta tumors. A significant difference in VEGF level was seen between low grade and high grade tumors in serum after BCG therapy (P=0.007); but not in urine samples. Conclusion: Although intravesical BCG possesses anti-angiogenic activity, it seems that it exerts its effect through pathways other than VEGF, especially in low grade tumors.
  3,639 676 -
Urological manifestations of Chikungunya fever: A single centre experience
Ramen Baishya, Vikas Jain, Arvind Ganpule, Veeramani Muthu, Ravindra B Sabnis, Mahesh R Desai
September-December 2010, 2(3):110-113
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68859  PMID:20981198
Background: Chikungunya is a viral infection often associated with lower urinary tract dysfunction. This study evaluates the urological squeal of Chikungunya fever in a single centre after an epidemic in 2006-2007 in India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 13 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms after Chikungunya fever was evaluated and outcome following intervention assessed. Results: A total of 13 patients (M:F=9:4), with age ranging from 30 to 72 years, were included in the study. They presented with chronic urinary retention (n=9, 69.23%) of which two had paraparesis, voiding symptoms alone (n=7, 53.8%), storage symptoms alone (n=3, 23%), and acute urinary retention (n=1, 7.6%). Presentation with lower urinary tract symptoms after an episode of Chikungunya fever was after a mean period of 163 days (range 30-360 days). Mean serum creatinine on presentation was 1.8 mg/dl (0.6-6.5 mg/dl). Evaluation revealed dilated upper tract in four (30.7%) patients. Cystometrography showed acontractile detrusor (n=3, 37.5%), hypocontractile detrusor (n=3, 37.5%), overactive detrusor (n=1, 12.5%) and normal study (n=1, 12.5%). At the mean follow up of 11 months, 11 patients (84.6%) had satisfactory functional outcome after intervention, namely supra pubic diversion and bladder training (n=5, 38.4%), alpha blocker (n=3, 23%), timed frequent voiding (n=2, 15.3%), clean intermittent catheterization (n=2, 15.3%), trial void with alpha blocker (n=1, 7.6%) while two are on continuing supra pubic diversion due to persistent neurological deficit. Conclusions: Chikungunya fever is an uncommon entity in urological practice, often associated with urinary symptoms. An accurate assessment of the symptoms and timely intervention prevents upper tract deterioration and improves the quality of life.
  3,700 494 1
Primary renal adenosquamous carcinoma
Mohammad Ashik Zainuddin, Tan Yeh Hong
September-December 2010, 2(3):122-124
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68862  PMID:20981201
A case of renal adenosquamous carcinoma is presented. The fact that the urothelium has no glandular or squamous structures makes the pathogenesis of this tumor unique. The process is assumed to begin with urothelial metaplasia resulting from chronic irritation leading to dysplasia and subsequently squamous and glandular differentiation.
  3,644 354 1
Large orthotopic reservoir stone burden: Role of open surgery
Khaled Madbouly
September-December 2010, 2(3):96-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68856  PMID:20981195
Purpose: To present our experience in open poucholithotomy as a primary management of large orthotopic reservoir stone burden and discuss different management options. Materials and Methods: Records of men underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion were retrospectively reviewed as regards pouch stone formation. Patients with large reservoir stone burden managed by open poucholithotomy were further selected. Results: Large reservoir stone burden was encountered in 12 post radical cystectomy men. All underwent open poucholithotomy as a primary management of their reservoir stones. Median age at cystectomy was 46 (range: 32-55) years with a median total follow up period of 214.15 (range: 147-257) months and a median interval to stone detection of 99 (range: 63-132) months. The median stone burden was 5260 (range: 3179-20410) mm 2 . All patients were continent during the day while 5 showed nocturnal enuresis; 2 of them became continent after removal of the stones. Post poucholithotomy, all patients had sterile urine cultures except one who showed occasional colonization. None of the 12 patients showed stone recurrence after poucholithotomy. Two patients underwent revision of a dessuscepted nipple valve in association with stone removal. Conclusions: Open poucholithotomy for large reservoir stone burden is a feasible and safe option. It saves the reservoir mesentery and adjacent bowel. It allows complete removal of the stone(s) leaving no residual fragments. Furthermore, it permits correction of concomitant reservoir abnormalities.
  3,323 500 1
Xanthogranulomatous cystitis: A rare clinical entity
Santosh K Singh, Atul K Khandelwal, Devendra S Pawar, Rajeev Sen, Sachit Sharma
September-December 2010, 2(3):125-126
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.68863  PMID:20981202
Xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XC) is a rare benign disease of unknown etiology. A case of XC in a 30-year-old male is presented due to sparcity of such case report in medical literature. Patient evaluation included clinical, biochemical and radiological studies before treatment. Histological study revealed the rare diagnosis. Patient was asymptomatic at eight weeks follow-up after treatment.
  2,937 416 2