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   2016| July-September  | Volume 8 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 29, 2016

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Self-inflicted foreign bodies in lower genitourinary tract in males: Our experience and review of literature
Nagabhushana Mahadevappa, Gaurav Kochhar, Karthikeyan Senguttuvan Vilvapathy, Sachin Dharwadkar, Sumit Kumar
July-September 2016, 8(3):338-342
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184904  PMID:27453657
Objectives: To study retrospectively the frequency, demographic, phenomenological, and psychiatric profile in patients presented with self-insertion of foreign bodies in the lower genitourinary tract in our institute. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to 2015, the records of patients admitted with self-insertion of foreign bodies into the lower urinary tract were analyzed retrospectively regarding demographic and phenomenological profile, the mode of presentation, diagnosis, management, complications, and possible contributing factors leading to the event. Results: Out of 17,978 inpatients, ten patients (0.055%) presented with foreign body insertion in the lower genitourinary tract in last 6 years. Mean age was 28.1 ± 13.9 (7–50) years. Objects used for insertion were varied from seeds, twigs to the electric wire. The contributing factors were lack of partner, misconception about masturbation, and underlying psychiatric illness. The presenting symptoms were pain and swelling of the penis, difficulty in voiding, and skin ulceration. The diagnosis was possible by simple observation in four patients, X-ray kidney, ureter, and bladder, and sonography of the pelvis in six patients. Five patients had endoscopic retrieval of foreign body, 2 had an open, suprapubic cystotomy, urethrotomy was needed in one patient, and forceps removal in two patients. There were no postoperative complications. Psychiatric profile was evaluated in nine patients. Conclusions: Foreign body insertion to lower urinary tract was rare. A main cause for insertion of foreign bodies was autoerotism, misconceptions regarding masturbation, and underlying psychiatric illness. In addition to suitable method of surgical removal, counseling and psychiatric evaluation are necessary to prevent recurrences or for early detection of psychiatric problems.
  12,920 391 -
Urolithiasis and crohn's disease
Sandro Roberto da Silva Gaspar, Tiago Mendonca, Pedro Oliveira, Tiago Oliveira, Jose Dias, Tome Lopes
July-September 2016, 8(3):297-304
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184879  PMID:27453651
Objective: To present an updated description of the relation between Crohn's disease (CD) and Urolithiasis. Patients and Methods: A literature search for English-language original and review articles was conducted in Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases in the month of December 2014 for papers either published or e-published up to that date, addressing the association between CD and urolithiasis as its consequence. All articles published in English language were selected for screening based on the following search terms: “CD,” “renal calculus,” “IBD,” and “urolithiasis.” We restricted the publication dates to the last 15 years (2000–2014). Results: In total, 901 patients were included in this review of which 95 were identified as having CD and urolithiasis simultaneously, for a total of 10.5%. Average age was 45.07 years old, irrespective of gender. 28.6% of patients received some kind of medical intervention without any kind of surgical technique involved, 50% of patients were submitted to a surgical treatment, and the remaining 21.4% were submitted to a combination of surgical and medical treatment. Urolithiasis and pyelonephritis incidence ranged from 4% to 23% with a risk 10–100 times greater than the risk for general population or for patients with UC, being frequent in patients with ileostomy and multiple bowel resections. We found that urolithiasis occurred in 95 patients from a total of 901 patients with CD (10.5%); 61.81% in men and 38.19% in women. Stone disease seems to present approximately 4–7 years after the diagnosis of bowel disease and CaOx seems to be the main culprit. Conclusions: CD is a chronic, granulomatous bowel disease, with urolithiasis as the most common extraintestinal manifestation (EIM), particularly frequent in patients submitted to bowel surgery. This complication needs to be recognized and addressed appropriately, especially in patients with unexplained renal dysfunction, abdominal pain, or recurrent urinary tract infection. We believe this study to be an updated valuable review as most data related to this kind of EIM refers to articles published before 2000, most of them before 1990. These patients need to be followed up with a specific prevention plan to eliminate or mitigate the risk factors for stone disease, aiming at preventing its formation and its complications, preserving renal function, reducing morbidity, and ultimately improving their quality of life.
  2,741 459 -
Double J stenting: A rewarding option in the management of emphysematous pyelonephritis
Debiprasad Das, Dilip Kumar Pal
July-September 2016, 8(3):261-264
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184881  PMID:27453644
Context: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is an acute necrotizing inflammation of renal parenchyma and peri-nephric tissue characterized by gas formation. In this study, we evaluated the outcome of EPN cases by medical management with or without renal decompression. Materials and Methods: We have observed prospectively 15 cases of EPN admitted in our institute in respect to age, sex, mode of presentation, presence of comorbidity, laboratory profile, urine-analysis, and outcome after medical management and drainage procedures. Results: All patients improved on medical management and drainage procedure such as JJ stenting and percutaneous nephrostomy. No mortality noted in our 15 cases of EPN. Conclusion: Emphysematous pyelonephritis can be managed conservatively by DJ stenting, wcich is a less morbid procedure or percutaneous nephrostomy with proper antibiotics and adequate glycemic control.
  2,661 466 -
Monopolar versus bipolar transurethral resection of prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia: Operative outcomes and surgeon preferences, a real-world scenario
Vijay Kumar Sarma Madduri, Malay Kumar Bera, Dilip Kumar Pal
July-September 2016, 8(3):291-296
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184900  PMID:27453650
Context: Monopolar transurethral resection of prostate (M-TURP) is considered the gold standard for the management of bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Its newly introduced modification, bipolar TURP (B-TURP), promises to overcome its most prominent shortcomings, namely bleeding and dilutional hyponatremia. Literature is conflicting regarding merits of B-TURP over M-TURP. Aims: To find a difference, if any, in perioperative outcomes between M-TURP and B-TURP in a real-wold setting. Settings and Design: Prospective nonrandomized study. Subjects and Methods: Operative outcomes of patients undergoing M-TURP and B-TURP from February 2014 to October 2015 were compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Categorical data were compared by Fischer exact test and numerical data were compared by independent samples Mann–Whitney U-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean size of prostate operated by bipolar technology was significantly greater than those operated by monopolar technology (38.12 ± 9.59 cc vs. 66.49 ± 22.95 cc; P < 0.001). The mean fall in postoperative serum sodium concentration was 0.99 ± 0.76 mEq/L for the B-TURP group as compared to 3.60 ± 2.89 mEq/L for the M-TURP group (P < 0.001). The mean drop in postoperative hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.28) was statistically insignificant, even though larger glands were operated by B-TURP. There were three instances of the transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome in the M-TURP group whereas no TUR syndrome occurred in the B-TURP group. Conclusions: In spite of various contrary viewpoints in literature, surgeons prefer to operate on larger prostates using bipolar technology. B-TURP definitely reduces the incidence of bleeding and dilutional hyponatremia, making it a contender to replace M-TURP as the new gold standard.
  2,649 456 -
Nephrolithiasis, stone composition, meteorology, and seasons in Malta: Is there any connection?
Jesmar Buttigieg, Stephanie Attard, Alexander Carachi, Ruth Galea, Stephen Fava
July-September 2016, 8(3):325-332
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184892  PMID:27453655
Context: The effect of seasons and meteorology on the incidence of nephrolithiasis has been studied in various regions around the globe, but seldom in the Mediterranean. Aims: This retrospective analysis aims at investigating these putative effects in the Maltese Islands, whose climate is typically Mediterranean, followed by a systematic review of the literature. Materials and Methods: Submission rate and chemical composition of all kidney stones after spontaneous passage or surgical removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were analyzed according to seasons and corresponding meteorology. Results: A total of 389 stones were analyzed. A higher stone submission rate was observed in summer compared to winter (31.6% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.0008) and in the warm period compared to the cold period (57.1% vs. 42.9%, P = 0.0001). Significant correlation was established between the monthly number of stones and mean monthly maximum temperature (r = 0.50, P = 0.002), mean monthly temperature (r = 0.49, P = 0.003) and mean monthly Humidex (r = 0.49, P = 0.007). Humidex was found to be an independent predictor for stone submission (β = 0.49, P = 0.007). The majority of stones contained calcium (83.3%), combined with oxalate (77.6%), phosphate (14.7%), and carbonate (2.8%). Some stones (11.8%) contained a mixture of >1 negatively charged molecules. Urate (11.6%), cysteine (4.6%), and ammonium-magnesium-phosphate (0.5%) constituted the rest. There was no association between chemical composition and seasons. Literature review included 25 articles. Higher ambient temperature and warm seasons were the most commonly encountered risk factors for both presentation and etiology of nephrolithiasis. Conclusions: A significant positive correlation was noted between ambient temperature and stone submission rate, which was significantly higher during the warm months in Malta.
  2,604 268 -
Unilateral versus bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks during ureteric shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective randomized trial
Ali Mohamed Ali Elnabtity, Waleed Mansour Shabana
July-September 2016, 8(3):265-269
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184893  PMID:27453645
Background: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for intra- and post-operative analgesia during abdominal operations and for ureteric shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as well. Aim: This study aimed at comparing ultrasound-guided unilateral versus bilateral TAP blocks as analgesic techniques for unilateral ureteric SWL. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized comparative study. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for unilateral ureteric SWL were randomly allocated into two groups: Group (U) received unilateral TAP block in the form of 25 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% (i.e., 62.5 mg), and Group (B) received bilateral TAP blocks in the form of 25 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% (i.e., 62.5 mg) on each side. Statistical Analysis: This was performed using SPSS program version 19 ((IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and EP 16 program. Results: The mean values of intra- and post-procedural visual analog scale at different time intervals were around (30), which was statistically insignificant between groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups regarding cardiopulmonary stability, postanesthesia care unit time, the total amount of rescue fentanyl and patient satisfaction scores (P > 0.05). There were no significant side effects in both groups. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block is as safe and effective analgesic technique as bilateral TAP blocks during unilateral ureteric SWL. It can be used as the sole analgesic technique during ureteric SWL.
  2,475 323 -
Evaluation of renal vascular anatomy in live renal donors: Role of multi detector computed tomography
Vaidehi Kumudchandra Pandya, Alpeshkumar Shakerlal Patel, Harsh Chandrakant Sutariya, Shruti Pradipkumar Gandhi
July-September 2016, 8(3):270-276
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184898  PMID:27453646
Background: Evaluation of renal vascular variations is important in renal donors to avoid vascular complications during surgery. Venous variations, mainly resulting from the errors of the embryological development, are frequently observed. Aim: This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the renal vascular variants with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography to provide valuable information for surgery and its correlations with surgical findings. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients underwent MDCT angiography as a routine work up for live renal donors. The number, course, and drainage patterns of the renal veins were retrospectively observed from the scans. Anomalies of renal veins and inferior vena cava (IVC) were recorded and classified. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs), maximum intensity projections, and volume rendering were used for analysis. The results obtained were correlated surgically. Results: In the present study, out of 200 healthy donors, the standard pattern of drainage of renal veins was observed in only 67% of donors on the right side and 92% of donors on the left side. Supernumerary renal veins in the form of dual and triple renal veins were seen on the right side in about 32.5% of donors (dual right renal veins in 30.5% cases and triple right renal veins in 2.5% cases). Variations on the left side were classified into four groups: supernumerary, retro-aortic, circumaortic, and plexiform left renal veins in 1%, 2.5%, 4%, 0.5%, cases respectively. Conclusions: Developmental variations in renal veins can be easily detected on computed tomography scan, which can go unnoticed and can pose a fatal threat during major surgeries such as donor nephrectomies in otherwise healthy donors if undiagnosed.
  2,385 327 -
Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with extensive scrotal wall invasion
Yong Gang Wang, Marlon Perera, Jacob Gleeson
July-September 2016, 8(3):381-383
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184897  PMID:27453668
Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) is an extremely rare and aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of a 62-year-old male who presented with a rapid spread of PUC to involve his entire scrotal wall after failed surgery and chemotherapy. The second course of chemotherapy was effective in providing symptom control. We believe this is the first case report of PUC causing such rapid and extensive scrotal invasion. This case highlights the important features of PUC including the pattern of tumor spread along fascial planes, the tendency for initial understaging, and the rapid recurrence after initially response to chemotherapy.
  2,402 227 -
Video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy for radical management of inguinal nodes in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma
Rajeev Chaudhari, Shahil Rameshbhai Khant, Dipen Patel
July-September 2016, 8(3):281-285
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184883  PMID:27453648
Background: Inguinal lymph node involvement is an important prognostic factor in penile cancer. Inguinal lymph node dissection allows staging and treatment of inguinal nodal disease. However, it causes morbidity and is associated with complications such as lymphocele, skin loss, and infection. Aims: To report our institutional experience with video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (VEIL) for radical management of inguinal nodes in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective analysis of data of patients that underwent VEIL, by a single surgeon, from 2008 to 2015. 14 patients of penile carcinoma were suitable for VEIL technique were included in this study and followed. Data analyzed included mean operative time, mean lymph node yield, intraoperative complications, cutaneous complication, lymph-related complications, and surgical emphysema. Results: The mean age of patients was 57.8 years (range: 45–70 years). Mean operative time for VEIL was 194.86 min (178–210 min). Mean lymph node yield was 7.68 (range: 5–11 nodes). No intraoperative complication was experienced during series. We noted no cutaneous complications, localized lymphocele were seen in total 6 units out of 22 units (27.2%). Surgical emphysema is seen in 3 limbs (13.63%). There was significantly decreased overall morbidity in our study. Follow-up of 10 out of 14 patients with median of 48 months shows no recurrence. Conclusions: In our early experience, VEIL is a safe and feasible technique in patients with penile carcinoma who require radical inguinal lymphadenectomy. It allows the removal of inguinal lymph nodes within the same limits as in conventional surgical dissection and reduces surgical morbidity substantially.
  2,284 340 -
Procalcitonin is a strong predictor of urine culture results in patients with obstructing ureteral stones: A prospective, pilot study
Dimitri Papagiannopoulos, Patrick Whelan, Waseem Ahmad, James Rybak, Bala Hota, Leslie Deane, Ajay Nehra
July-September 2016, 8(3):277-280
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184877  PMID:27453647
Purpose: The appropriate management of infected obstructing ureteral calculi is prompt genitourinary decompression. Urine cultures are the gold standard for confirming infection but often take 24–48 h to result. Although white blood cell (WBC) count is an important diagnostic laboratory test, it is a nonspecific inflammatory marker. Similarly, urinalysis (UA) can be misleading in the setting of a contaminated sample, bladder colonization, or in cases of a completely obstructed the upper urinary tract. Procalcitonin (PCT) has shown promise in predicting the presence and degree of bacterial infections. In this proof-of-concept study, we explore whether PCT is effective at predicting concomitant infections in the setting of obstructing ureteral stones. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, single-institution observational pilot study examining adult patients who presented to the emergency room with acute obstructing ureterolithiasis. In total, 22 patients were enrolled. At the time of presentation, data obtained were vital signs, WBC count, PCT, UA, urine, and blood cultures. Fisher-exact two-tailed t-tests and receiver operating characteristic statistics with area under the curve (AUC) calculations were used to determine the correlation between urine culture results and PCT, WBC count, nitrite-positive UA, heart rate, and fever. Results: In total, 5/22 patients had bacteria-positive urine cultures. PCT (P = 0.020) and nitrite-positive UA (0.024) were the only statistically significant predictors of urine culture results. In comparing the AUC, PCT (0.812) was strongly correlated with eventual urine culture results. Conclusions: This proof-of-concept pilot study gives encouraging results, in that PCT was a good predictor of positive cultures (P = 0.02, AUC 0.812). Given, the small sample size, one cannot directly compare PCT to other markers of infection. However, PCT shows promise in this arena and warrants future investigation.
  2,218 380 -
High-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the pelvis: A case report and review of literature
Slava Agafonoff, Shrikant K Vaidya, Brian DeFade
July-September 2016, 8(3):372-376
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184907  PMID:27453666
High-grade spindle cell sarcomas are rare undifferentiated pleomorphic cancers that present a treatment challenge to urological practices, especially when they present in the pelvis. We report a 46-year-old male patient who presented to our urology clinic with urinary retention after having a Foley catheter placed at an outlying facility. A voiding trial was attempted, but the patient failed this trial. This failure resulted in cystoscopy with bilateral retrograde pyelograms, which revealed a compressed bladder due to extrinsic compression. This finding had been evaluated with a computed tomography (CT) scan with and without intravenous contrast that showed a 14 cm pelvic mass with bladder displacement and compression. A fine needle aspiration was done at this outlying facility, prior to referral to our office, and it confirmed spindle cell pathology. The mass was surgically excised with the histology revealing a pelvic spindle cell sarcoma with positive surgical margins. Further, metastatic work-up with CT/positron emission tomography revealed bone and lung metastasis. The patient is currently undergoing chemotherapy and radiation. In this case study, we will review staging, management, differential diagnosis, chemotherapy, and radiation.
  2,299 276 -
A randomized clinical trial comparing intracorpus spongiosum block versus intraurethral lignocaine in visual internal urethrotomy for short segment anterior urethral strictures
Deepak Kumar Biswal, Bastab Ghosh, Malay Kumar Bera, Dilip Pal Kumar
July-September 2016, 8(3):317-324
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184901  PMID:27453654
Objectives: The primary objective was to compare the effectiveness in pain relief of intracorpus spongiosum block (ICSB) versus intraurethral topical anesthesia (TA) using 2% lignocaine jelly for performing visual internal urethrotomy (VIU) for short segment anterior urethral strictures. Materials and Methods: It was a randomized, parallel group controlled trial. Participants are adult patients with a single anterior urethral stricture up to 2 cm in length. Patients were allocated to two intervention groups with thirty patients in each group. For anesthesia of the urethra, Group 1 patients received ICSB whereas Group 2 patients received intraurethral TA using 2% lignocaine jelly before VIU. Patient discomfort was assessed with visual analog scale (VAS) during the procedure and 1 h postprocedure. The increase in pulse rate and the change in systolic blood pressure (BP) during the procedure were recorded. The procedure was considered successful if there was absence of symptoms or signs of recurrent stricture and ability to pass freely 18Fr catheter during urethral calibration at last follow-up. Results: From March 2014 to June 2015, sixty patients were randomized into two groups of thirty patients each. The mean (±standard deviation) intraoperative VAS score was 2.8 ± 1.1 in Group 1, which was significantly less (P < 0.05) than the 5.6 ± 1.7 score in Group 2. The mean 1 h postoperative VAS score was also significantly lower in Group 1 patients (1.0 ± 1.0) than in Group 2 patients (3.2 ± 1.5). The change in pulse rate was significantly greater in Group 2 (21.3 ± 10.1 beats/min) than in Group 1 (10.6 ± 4.6 beats/min, P < 0.05). The change in systolic BP was also significantly higher in Group 2 (16.3 ± 8.6 mmHg) than in Group 1 (9.1 ± 4.4 mmHg, P < 0.05). The stricture-free rate at 6-month after VIU in Group 1 and Group 2 patients were 88.5% and 89.6%, respectively. Conclusions: ICSB has better pain control with similar complication and recurrence rate than intraurethral lignocaine jelly alone in VIU.
  2,284 247 -
Is hemoglobin A1c level effective in predicting the prognosis of Fournier gangrene?
Haluk Sen, Omer Bayrak, Sakip Erturhan, Ersin Borazan, Mustafa Nihat Koc
July-September 2016, 8(3):343-347
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184905  PMID:27453658
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of immune failure and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) association on the mortality and morbidity of the Fournier's Gangrene (FG), and interrelatedly, the usability of HbA1c level in the prediction of prognosis. Materials and Methods: The data of 38 patients with the diagnosis of FG were investigated retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as patients with DM (Group 1, n = 18) and non-diabetics (Group 2, n = 20). The patients in group 1 were also divided into two subgroups as patients with HbA1c value ≥7 (Group 1a) and HbA1c value <7 (Group 1b). Results: The mean age of all 38 male patients was 66.3 ± 6.4 years. The initial symptoms were scrotal rash and swelling (n = 20, 52.6%), high fever (>38°C) (n = 22, 57.8%), purulent discharge from genital or perineal areas (n = 13, 34.2%), skin bruises (n = 11, 28.9%) and general state disorder in five patients that were admitted from day care center (13.1%). DM, as the most often comorbid disease, was detected in 18 patients (47.3%). Six patients (15.7%) were deceased during the follow-up period. Conclusion: In the present study, the researchers determined that diabetic patients with HbA1c level of 7 or higher had worse prognosis, and increased mortality.
  2,199 292 -
Myeloid sarcoma of the periprostatic tissue and prostate: Case report and review of literature
Shalini Koppisetty, Brain L Edelman, Atul Rajpurkar
July-September 2016, 8(3):348-354
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184890  PMID:27453659
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare extramedullary tumor composed of immature cells of myeloid lineage that destroy the original tissue architecture in which it is found. It is most commonly identified in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, and less often in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and other myeloproliferative disorders. It is most commonly reported in the periosteum, bone, skin, and lymph nodes but has been reported in many other sites of the body. Herein, we describe a case of MS involving the periprostatic tissue and review of literature of MS of the prostate. Our patient was initially diagnosed with MDS and was in remission following successful treatment. Six months later, the patient was diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma, and MS of the periprostatic tissue was incidentally discovered in the postprostatectomy pathology specimen. An extensive review of literature from 1997 to 2014 revealed a total of eight cases of MS involving the prostate. Of the eight cases of MS of the prostate, four were primary MS (absence of a history of leukemia) and four were secondary MS. Three received local radiation to the prostate with relief of obstructive symptoms, and one of them had a repeat prostate biopsy negative for leukemic cells. Despite being a rare entity, MS should be considered as a differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses, especially in patients with a history of hematological malignancies.
  2,015 268 -
Radiologic indicators prior to renal cell cancer thrombectomy: Implications for vascular reconstruction and mortality
Stephen Overholser, Omer Raheem, David Zapata, Dharam Kaushik, Ronald Rodriguez, Ithaar H Derweesh, Michael A Liss
July-September 2016, 8(3):312-316
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184888  PMID:27453653
Background: Renal cancer may invade the inferior vena cava (IVC) creating more complex surgical intervention. We investigate radiologic findings that may predict vascular reconstruction prior to surgery and future renal cancer-specific mortality. Materials and Methods: Radiologic findings included Mayo Clinic risk factors for vascular reconstruction: Right-sided tumor, anteroposterior diameter of the IVC at the ostium of the renal vein ≥24.0 mm, and radiologic identification of complete occlusion of the IVC. Additional factors included thrombus in the lumen of the hepatic veins and metastasis. Along with other demographic factors, analysis included Chi-squared analysis for vascular reconstruction and logistic regression for mortality. A Kaplan–Meier curve was created for the most significant radiologic factor. Results: Thirty-seven patients underwent IVC tumor thrombectomy at two institutions from April 2007 to February 2015. We found that Mayo risk factors of 0, 1, 2, and 3 and the proportions of vascular reconstruction of 0%, 0%, 12.5%, and 13.6%, respectively (P = 0.788). Hepatic vein involvement was the most significant determinate of renal cell carcinoma-specific mortality in multivariable analysis, controlling for the size of IVC at the hepatic veins, pulmonary metastasis, and Fuhrman grade (P = 0.02, Log-rank P = 0.002). Conclusion: Mayo risk factors did not predict vascular reconstruction in our small cohort of Level II–Level IV IVC thrombus undergoing IVC thrombectomy. Tumor thrombus traveling into the lumen of the hepatic veins was a significant risk factor for accelerated mortality.
  2,014 252 -
Cutaneous metastasis: An unusual presenting feature of urologic malignancies
Arun Ramdas Menon, Anju Sussanna Thomas, Nivedita Suresh, Shashank Malagi Shashidhar
July-September 2016, 8(3):377-380
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184882  PMID:27453667
Urological malignancies are well known for their ability to metastasize widely. The incidence of cutaneous metastasis from all urologic malignancies has been reported to be 0.73–1.3% with the primary most commonly being renal cell carcinoma followed by carcinoma bladder, adenocarcinoma prostate, and testicular germ cell tumor in decreasing order of frequency. Metastasis to the skin is unusual and has been predominantly reported as a late manifestation of the disease. We describe two patients with urologic malignancies who had cutaneous metastasis as their initial presenting feature.
  1,950 251 -
A case report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of urinary bladder
Mohand D Yaghi
July-September 2016, 8(3):366-368
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184880  PMID:27453664
An old woman was admitted due to massive visible hematuria; the hematuria was difficult to control and lasted 3 days. Cystoscopy showed a solid tumor in the urinary bladder. After performing transrectal resection, histology and immunohistochemistry showed that it was inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
  1,937 251 -
Extended partial cystectomy with augmentation cystoplasty in urachal adenocarcinoma: An oncologically favorable but underutilized alternative to radical cystectomy
Rohan Satish Valsangkar, Syed J Rizvi, Niraj K Goyal
July-September 2016, 8(3):369-371
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184894  PMID:27453665
Partial/extended partial cystectomy (EPC) is the most common surgery done for localized urachal malignancies. However, sometimes, after EPC, patients may be left with small bladder remnant, reconstruction of which will result in very small capacity bladder with resultant severe storage voiding symptoms. We report a case of urachal adenocarcinoma, in which when a small bladder remnant was left post-EPC, instead of proceeding with radical cystectomy (RC) and neobladder (the standard alternative), bladder augmentation was done with good oncological and voiding outcome. Augmentation cystoplasty has many advantages over neobladder and we suggest it as an oncologically comparable alternative to RC with neobladder, which has been underutilized in urachal malignancies as we found on literature review.
  1,916 231 -
Giant cystic pheochromocytoma: A silent entity
Amit Gupta, Lovenish Bains, Manish Kumar Agarwal, Renu Gupta
July-September 2016, 8(3):384-386
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184886  PMID:27453669
Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine secreting tumor that originate from chromaffin cells. Usually, it is solid neoplasm of the adrenal medulla, however cystic pheochromocytoma is a rare neuro-endocrine tumour that is frequently asymptomatic and often diagnosed incidentally on imaging or intra-operatively. Only a few cases of cystic pheochromocytomas have been reported in the world literature. We present a case of giant cystic pheochromocytoma in a 65 years old lady who presented with a large retroperitoneal lump, which is probably the world's third largest pheochromocytoma as per the available indexed literature.
  1,910 227 -
Effect of urine pH on the effectiveness of shock wave lithotripsy: A pilot study
Ahmad Majzoub, Ammar Al-Ani, Tawiz Gul, Hatem Kamkoum, Khalid Al-Jalham
July-September 2016, 8(3):286-290
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184899  PMID:27453649
Aim: Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a well-established modality in the treatment of urolithiasis. Studying the effect of urine pH on SWL success is appealing as pH can be manipulated before SWL to insure a better outcome. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study performed at a tertiary medical center. Patients presenting to the SWL unit with a single renal stone <2 cm in size were included in this study. In addition to standard laboratory and radiologic investigations, urine pH measurement was performed on all patients before their procedure. The number of sessions performed, and the stone-free rate (SFR) were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups according to stone clearance. Group 1 was stone-free, whereas Group 2 had residual stones after three sessions of SWL. Data was also classified according to different pH ranges. Influential factors were compared among the study groups and pH ranges. Results: A total of 175 patients were included in this study. The SFR was 54.3%. The mean number of sessions performed was 2.2 ± 0.8. Group 1 included 95 patients, whereas Group 2 had eighty patients. Among all studied factors, stone size (P = 0.03) and skin to stone distance (P = 0.04) significantly affected SFR with SWL. Urine pH was not found to have a statistically significant influence on SWL outcome (P = 0.51). Conclusion: Urine pH was not found in this study population to influence the effectiveness of SWL. Further experimental studies are required to help investigate this notion.
  1,883 236 -
Laparoendoscopic single site surgery for extravesical repair of vesicovaginal fistula using conventional instruments: Our initial experience
Nagabhushana Mahadevappa, Swathi Gudage, Karthikeyan V Senguttavan, Ashwin Mallya, Sachin Dharwadkar
July-September 2016, 8(3):305-311
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184896  PMID:27453652
Objective: Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a major complication with psychosocial ramifications. In literature, few VVF cases have been managed by laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS) and for the 1st time we report VVF repair by LESS using conventional laparoscopic instruments. We present our initial experience and to assess its feasibility, safety and outcome. Patients and Methods: From March 2012 to September 2015, LESS VVF repair was done for ten patients aged between 30 and 65 (45.6 ± 10.15) years, who presented with supratrigonal VVF. LESS was performed by modified O'Conor technique using regular trocars with conventional instruments. Data were collected regarding feasibility, intra- or post-operative pain, analgesic requirement, complication, and recovery. Results: All 10 cases were completed successfully, without conversion to a standard laparoscopic or open approach. The mean operative time was 182.5 ± 32.25 (150–250) min. The mean blood loss was 100 mL. The respective mean visual analog score for pain on day 1, 2, and 3 was 9.2 ± 1, 5 ± 1, and 1.4 ± 2.3. The analgesic requirement in the form of intravenous tramadol on days 1, 2, and 3 was 160 ± 51.6, 80 ± 63.2, and 30 ± 48.3, mgs respectively. No major intra- or post-operative complications were observed. The mean hospital stay was 2.6 ± 0.7 (2–4) days. Conclusion: In select patients, LESS extravesical repair of VVF using conventional laparoscopic instruments is safe, feasible with all the advantages of single port surgery at no added cost. Additional experience and comparative studies with conventional laparoscopy are warranted.
  1,831 238 -
Operative considerations for late-presenting persistent Müllerian duct syndrome
Jacob T Ark, Kelvin A Moses
July-September 2016, 8(3):363-365
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184895  PMID:27453663
Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a condition in which a 46, XY male displays masculine external genitalia, but internally retains developed Müllerian duct structures (uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper two-thirds vagina). Thoughtful operative consideration is needed to maximize the therapeutic benefit while minimizing the risk of hypogonadism, infertility, and erectile dysfunction. We report a 53-year-old male with a pelvic mass incidentally discovered on routine ultrasound, intra-operatively discovered to be PMDS. PMDS is a rare condition that may present late in life. The primary operative consideration is performing orchiopexy for cancer surveillance or orchiectomy if orchiopexy is not possible. Additional considerations include surveillance and counseling of infertility, hypogonadism, and assessment of the potential need for involvement of psychiatry. Removal of Müllerian remnants is a subject to debate. If possible, discuss with the patient their risks and options in the preoperative setting to guide operative planning.
  1,873 187 -
Early metastasis to anterior abdominal wall following radical cystectomy: A rare presentation
Ajit Sawant, Sumit Bansal, Prakash Pawar, Gaurav Kasat
July-September 2016, 8(3):394-396
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184902  PMID:27453672
Abdominal wall metastasis from urothelial cancer is extremely rare and very few such cases have been reported in the literature. As such the treatment protocols are not so well defined. We present an interesting case of a 65-year-old male patient, known case of chronic kidney disease, who presented with a large, fungating infraumbilical mass 8 months postradical cystectomy. The mass involved full thickness anterior abdominal wall and small bowel including the ileal conduit. Wide excision of the mass along with adhered bowel loops and partial excision of the ileal conduit with right ureteric reimplant was performed. The large defect in the anterior abdominal wall was closed using a mesh (permanent with a bioresorbable coating inside) and myocutaneous thigh flap. The histopathological examination of the excised mass was consistent with secondary from the urothelial tumor.
  1,830 223 -
Bladder leiomyoma in male patient presenting with renal oncocytoma: Are the two conditions related?
Turky Almouhissen, Hattan Badr, Noor Alessa, Anmar Nassir
July-September 2016, 8(3):397-399
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184906  PMID:27453673
A 64-year-old male patient with a large pelvic mass and a right renal mass was referred to our facility. The patient underwent a right radical nephrectomy and pelvic mass excision. A histopathological examination led to a diagnosis of renal oncocytoma and urinary bladder leiomyoma.
  1,809 239 -
Breast metastases from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the kidney: An unusual presentation
Shalini Koppisetty, Ricardo C Alessio, Atul Rajpurkar
July-September 2016, 8(3):387-390
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184878  PMID:27453670
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are extremely rare soft tissue sarcomas of ectomesenchymal origin. They are commonly seen in association with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), but can also occur without a history of NF (isolated MPNST). MPNSTs are most commonly located on the extremities (brachial and sacral plexus), head and neck, and trunk regions and are rarely reported in genitourinary organs. These tumors are aggressive, with a high recurrence rate and distant metastases. MPNST involving the kidney is extremely rare, and review of the literature using PubMed from 2001 to 2014 revealed eight cases of MPNST involving the kidney (seven, primarily involving the kidney and one metastatic MPNST of the kidney). Herein, we describe a case of breast metastases from an MPNST of the kidney without a history of NF-1. The patient was initially diagnosed with a spindle cell neoplasm of the kidney with peripheral nerve sheath differentiation. Eventually, the patient developed a right breast mass that was diagnosed as metastatic MPNST. The patient refused any kind of treatment and died 6 months later in hospice care.
  1,786 220 -
Primary adenocarcinoma of ureter: A rare histopathological variant
Prekshi Chaudhary, Rashi Agarwal, Shashank Srinivasan, Dinesh Singh
July-September 2016, 8(3):357-359
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184885  PMID:27453661
Primary carcinoma of ureter is an uncommon malignancy. Of which, mostly are transitional cell carcinomas followed by squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas being the rarest histopathology encountered. We report a case of adenocarcinoma ureter in a middle-aged male along with its clinical scenario. A 62-year-old male, presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Computerized tomography urogram showed a soft tissue lesion at the right ureterovesical junction. Cystoscopic biopsy reported villous adenoma. Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan reported nonfunctioning right kidney. He underwent laparoscopic right nephroureterectomy, and histopathology reported adenocarcinoma of the right lower third of ureter, with positive distal and close radial margins. The patient received external beam radiation to the postoperative bed and lymph nodes, and he is disease-free till date.
  1,789 205 -
A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain
Adam Alleemudder, Rajiv Pillai
July-September 2016, 8(3):360-362
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184887  PMID:27453662
We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin.
  1,784 207 -
Recurrence and progression in nonmuscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guerin: A single center experience and analysis of prognostic factors
Shouki N Bazarbashi, Haya J Azouz, Amal H Abu Sabaa, Ali H Aljubran, Ahmad M Alzahrani, Mohammed F Alotaibi
July-September 2016, 8(3):333-337
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184891  PMID:27453656
Background: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) has been the standard of care for the prevention of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence following resection. Attempts to improve on the result by combining it with other agents have largely failed. This study addresses the result of BCG therapy in our patient population and compares the result with our combination BCG and interferon therapy published earlier. Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients diagnosed with NMIBC and treated with transurethral resection and intravesical BCG were reviewed. Univariate analysis was performed on most known prognostic factors. Results were compared to published data on the use of BCG and interferon from the same institution. Results: Thirty-one patients were identified. Median age was 66 (range 33–109), 80.6% were males. Fourteen patients (45%) had ≤ 3 tumors and 18 (58.1%) had T1 lesions. Four patients (12.9%) had Grade 3 tumors and 25 (80.6%) had Grade 2 tumors. One patient (3.2) had concurrent carcinoma in situ and 11 (35.5%) were treated upon initial diagnosis. At 5 years, the relapse-free survival was 61.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 44.2–78.4%), progression-free survival was 85.6% (95% CI 73.3–97.9%), and overall survival was 93% (95% CI 84.1–100%). Comparison with the BCG and interferon data showed no significant difference. Conclusion: The result of BCG therapy in our patient population is similar to western reported data. Efficacy of BCG alone is equal to BCG and interferon within our institution.
  1,794 184 -
Spinal arteriovenous malformation presenting with urinary retention
Apostolos Vrettos
July-September 2016, 8(3):355-356
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184884  PMID:27453660
We present a case of a young female patient presenting predominantly with recurrent episodes of urinary retention. Extensive urological workup was unremarkable. There were some subtle and long-standing neurological findings which prompted us to investigate further with a spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan. The scan demonstrated a spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) beginning from the L4/L5 level to the S1/S2 level. Spinal AVM can be a rare cause of urinary retention, and we would like to highlight the importance of having that in the list of our differential when other more common causes have been excluded, and the patient remains symptomatic.
  1,719 179 -
Small renal tumor with lymph nodal enlargement: A histopathological surprise
Mujeeburahiman Thottathil, Ashish Verma, Nischith D'souza, Altaf Khan
July-September 2016, 8(3):391-393
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184889  PMID:27453671
Renal cancer with lymph nodal mass on the investigation is clinically suggestive of an advanced tumor. Small renal cancers are not commonly associated with lymph nodal metastasis. Association of renal cell carcinoma with renal tuberculosis (TB) in the same kidney is also rare. We report here a case of small renal cancer with multiple hilar and paraaortic lymph nodes who underwent radical nephrectomy, and histopathology report showed renal and lymph nodal TB too.
  1,694 183 -
RE: Semi-rigid ureteroscopy – Proximal versus distal ureteral stone
Mohd Nazli Kamarulzaman
July-September 2016, 8(3):400-401
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.184903  PMID:27453674
  1,424 188 -