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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 19-23

Patients with a history of infection and voiding dysfunction are at risk for recurrence after successful endoscopic treatment of vesico ureteral reflux and deserve long-term follow up

1 Pediatric Surgery and Pediatric Urology Unit, "San Camillo - Forlanini Hospital", Rome, Italy
2 Radiology Unit, "San Camillo - Forlanini Hospital", Rome, Italy

Correspondence Address:
A Calisti
Via Trionfale 7210 00135, Rome
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.91616

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Aim of the Study: Subureteral endoscopic injection of a bulking agent is an attractive alternative to open surgery or antibiotic prophylaxis for vesico ureteral reflux (VUR). Little information is available about long-term risk of recurrence after an initially successful treatment. Aim of this paper was to review short- and long-term success rate of endoscopic treatment in a single Center series after risk stratification of individual patients. Materials and Methods: The records of 126 patients who underwent Deflux injection for primary VUR were examined. Indications to treatment were an unvaried high grade VUR (IV-V) at 1 year from diagnosis and/or and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) on antibiotic prophylaxis even in the presence of mild grade VUR (III grade). Gender, age and mode of diagnosis, infections (UTI), voiding dysfunctions, VUR grade and side, renal function, number of treatments were correlated to outcome. Long-term evaluation was planned at a minimum of 1 year from the last negative post-injection cystogram (MCUG). A new MCUG and DMSA scan were also offered to those complaining new UTI episodes. Late recurrences were correlated to history and grade of reflux. Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Instat software; the Chi-square test was used for univariate comparisons, the Fisher's exact test for categorical variables.and multiple regression tests for factors influencing outcome. Results: M/F ratio was 62 to 64; median age at diagnosis was 28 months. VUR affected 198 renal units. Preinjection VUR grade was I in 1, II in 27, III in 107, IV in 59, and V in 4 units. Reduced DMSA uptake was evidenced in 51 units and scarring in 24. Median age at treatment was 34.5 months, for persistent high grade VUR (IV-V) in 55 patients and recurrent IVU in 92. Two hundred sixty seven injections were performed on 198 ureters. Complete resolution was documented by MCUG at 3-5 months in 68%, low grading < II in 20%, persistence or unsignificant reduction in 11%. Preoperative recurrent UTI, higher grade VUR, and bilaterality were correlated to a poorer surgical outcome. Among 80 successfully treated cases, 12 complained of persistent UTI. Recurrence of VUR was demonstrated in 31% of them. Deteriorated uptake or additional scarring in 25% was independent from VUR recurrence. Preoperative recurrent UTI and voiding dysfunction correlated significantly to late outcome. Conclusions: Preoperative recurrent IVU, together with high-grade reflux, seem to correlate to lower success rate of Deflux injection for primary VUR. Even after successful endoscopic treatment, long-term surveillance may be needed among these cases, mainly if voiding dysfunction is also recorded. Late recurring VUR must be actively excluded in case of new IVU episodes.

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