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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 36-40

Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in Saudi Arabia

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Nabeel S Bondagji
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Medicine, P.O Box 80215, Jeddah 21589
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.127021

PMID: 24669120

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Objective: To study the prevalence, pattern of distribution, and the outcome of different types of kidney and urinary tract anomalies (CAKUT) diagnosed during the antenatal period. The second objective is to test the accuracy of antenatal diagnosis of CAKUT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional hospital-based study, all cases diagnosed antenatally with urinary tract anomalies at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were studied. The prevalence, pattern of distribution, and immediate postnatal outcomes, in addition to the accuracy of antenatal diagnosis, of those cases are reported. Results: One hundred and forty-one cases of urinary tract anomalies were antenatally diagnosed; postnatal diagnosis was confirmed in 128 cases (90.1%). The prevalence of CAKUT in our population is 3.26 per 1000 births. The most common abnormalities detected were hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and renal agenesis, in descending order of frequency. The perinatal mortality rate among fetuses with CAKUT is 310 per 1000, the majority of these cases (90%) occurred in cases with renal parenchyma involvement. Conclusions: The prevalence of different types of CAKUT is higher than that reported in developed countries. Urinary tract anomalies can be accurately diagnosed and classified in the antenatal period using ultrasonography imaging. Antenatal diagnosis is a helpful tool in planning immediate postnatal care and deciding the place for delivery. This might prevent or slow renal function deterioration and help in early identification of patients who need early surgical intervention.

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