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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 132-133  

Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence, and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in Saudi Arabia

Department of Paediatrics, Al-Kindy College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq

Date of Web Publication6-Jan-2015

Correspondence Address:
Mahmood Dhahir Al Mendalawi
P.O. Box 55302, Baghdad Post Office, Baghdad
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.148671

PMID: 25657570

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How to cite this article:
Al Mendalawi MD. Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence, and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in Saudi Arabia. Urol Ann 2015;7:132-3

How to cite this URL:
Al Mendalawi MD. Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence, and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in Saudi Arabia. Urol Ann [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Nov 27];7:132-3. Available from: https://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2015/7/1/132/148671


I have two comments on the interesting study by Bondagji. [1]

First, Bondagji [1] in his study reported that the antenatal diagnosis of all congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) cases was confirmed postnatally in 90.1% of cases. Furthermore, Bondagji [1] mentioned that the perinatal outcome of the fetuses with CAKUT involved perinatal death in 21.9% cases. It is well-known that the close co-operation between ultrasonographers and perinatal pathologists is mutually beneficial. Ultrasonography is an essential method for the diagnosis of the majority of fetal malformations, but post-mortem examinations can yield an indispensable quality control as well as additional information to ultrasound examinations. [2] I wonder whether post-mortem examination was done for the succumbed fetuses in the studied cohort. I presume that absence of postmortem examination together with the notion that too little is known about the physiological development of the fetal urinary tract in ultrasonography and hence, inability to safely differentiate between physiological and pathological development [3] might alter the concordance frequency of antennal and postnatal diagnosis of CAKUT (90.1%) addressed by Bondagji. [1]

Second, the reported prevalence of CAKUT in the studied population (3.26/1000 births) and the perinatal mortality rate among fetuses with CAKUT (310/1000) are alarmingly high. Strict actions are, therefore, needed to prevent further escalation of the aforementioned outcomes. I presume that the following two points could be of help to achieve that goal. (1) It is well-known that consanguineous couples have a higher risk of having children with congenital malformations than non-related couples. The practice of consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in Kingdome of Saudi Arabia (KSA). [4] This is further supported by Bondagji's study [1] where 40.4% of the affected fetuses were the products of consanguineous marriages, while 59.6% were the products of non-consanguineous marriages. The continuing popularity of consanguineous marriage in KSA and their unwanted aftermaths ought to be confronted by suitable educational programs. (2) It seems justifiable to implement a national combined prenatal and postnatal ultrasound screening examination in KSA as that has been proved to be effective in early CAKUT diagnosis. [5] This would be beneficial in initiating further invasive diagnostic procedures and planning postnatal medical and surgical intervention. Furthermore, it helps to consider the option of termination of pregnancy within the cultural, legal, and religious frameworks, particularly for lethal CAKUT.

   References Top

Bondagji NS. Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in Saudi Arabia. Urol Ann 2014;6:36-40.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Joó JG, Csatlós E, Csaba A, Rigó J Jr. Positive predictive value of prenatal ultrasonography confirmed by post-mortem investigations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011;156:149-52.  Back to cited text no. 2
Lettgen B, Meyer-Schwickerath M, Bedow W. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of the kidneys and efferent urinary tract. Possibilities, applications and dangers. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 1993;141:462-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
Kari JA, Bockenhauer D, Stanescu H, Gari M, Kleta R, Singh AK. Consanguinity in Saudi Arabia: A unique opportunity for pediatric kidney research. Am J Kidney Dis 2014;63:304-10.  Back to cited text no. 4
Richter-Rodier M, Lange AE, Hinken B, Hofmann M, Stenger RD, Hoffmann W, et al. Ultrasound screening strategies for the diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Ultraschall Med 2012;33:E333-8.  Back to cited text no. 5


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