Urology Annals
About UA | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Online submissionLogin 
Urology Annals
  Editorial Board | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact
Users Online: 1095   Home Print this page  Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size


 
Table of Contents
CASE REPORT
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 236-239  

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a young male: Case report and review of literature


1 Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Surgery, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission23-Feb-2013
Date of Acceptance31-Jul-2013
Date of Web Publication11-Mar-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nivedita Patnaik
Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences & Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi
India
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/0974-7796.150537

PMID: 25836041

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney is a rare tumor. A total of approximately 79 primary renal cases have been reported to date. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors occur preferentially in the soft-tissues of the paravertebral region and chest wall, less frequently in extremities, with a slight male predominance. We report a case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a 17-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma-stage 4. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor of monotonous sheets of round cells with focal areas of rosette formations and high mitotic rate with Ki67 index of 25-30%. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 confirming the diagnosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney needs to be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in young adults presenting with a large kidney mass.

Keywords: Blastemal wilms, immunohistochemistry, kidney, primitive neuroectodermal tumor


How to cite this article:
Patnaik N, Mishra K, Saini P, Agarwal N. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a young male: Case report and review of literature. Urol Ann 2015;7:236-9

How to cite this URL:
Patnaik N, Mishra K, Saini P, Agarwal N. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a young male: Case report and review of literature. Urol Ann [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Sep 26];7:236-9. Available from: https://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2015/7/2/236/150537


   Introduction Top


Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the kidney is a rare malignancy. In the literature reviewed approximately 79 primary renal cases have been reported. [1] Renal PNET is highly aggressive, presenting at an advanced stage, with distant metastasis and subsequent poor prognosis. It affects young adults with significant mortality. [2] We report a case of primary Renal PNET in a young male.


   Case Report Top


A 17-year-old male presented with complaints of hematuria and heaviness in left flank since 1 month. Physical examination revealed a soft lump in left hypochondrium. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed a mass in the left kidney. CT scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large significantly enhancing left renal upper mid polar mass with necrosis and a possible thrombus in left renal vein [Figure 1]. Left radical nephrectomy was performed. Gross examination revealed a friable, grayish white, lobulated mass (15 × 13 × 7 cm 3 ), with multiple foci of hemorrhage and necrosis [Figure 2]. The renal vein and ureter were free of the tumor. Four lymph nodes were dissected from perihilar region.
Figure 1: CT abdomen showing large significantly enhancing left renal upper mid polar mass with necrosis and a possible thrombus in left renal vein. No renal hilar lymphadenopathy

Click here to view
Figure 2: A friable, greyish white, lobulated mass, with multiple foci of hemorrhage and necrosis

Click here to view
Figure 3: Tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells divided by fibro vascular septae

Click here to view


Microscopically, the tumor was composed of monotonous sheets of round cells divided by fibro vascular septae into lobules along with large areas of necrosis [Figure 3]. There were focal areas of rosette formations [Figure 4]. The individual cells had round to ovoid nucleus with a distinct nuclear membrane, fine powdery chromatin and 1 or 2 small nucleoli with 5-10 mitosis per high power field [Figure 5]. The cytoplasm was ill defined, scanty, and pale staining. Three of the four lymph nodes were involved. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CD99 [Figure 6] weakly positive for NSE, focally positive for WT1 but negative for chromogranin. The tumor had a high proliferation rate with labeling index of 25-30 % on Ki67 immunostaining [Figure 7]. A diagnosis of PNET was made based on the above findings and patient was referred to oncology center for further management.
Figure 4: Focal areas of rosette formations

Click here to view
Figure 5: The individual cells with round to ovoid nucleus with distinct nuclear membrane, fine powdery chromatin 1 or 2 small nucleoli and ill-defined and scanty cytoplasm

Click here to view
Figure 6: Tumor cells positive for CD99

Click here to view
Figure 7: Tumor cells positive for Ki67 immunostaining

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


The PNET, first recognized by Arthur Purdy Stout in 1918, is a member of the family of "small round-cell tumors." [3] PNET arising in the kidney was first reported by Mor in 1994. [4]

PNET is an aggressive tumor that tends to recur locally and to metastasize to lymph nodes, lung, liver, bone, and bone marrow which entail a worse prognosis. [1] Patients show a male predominance (58%) with 85% cases being diagnosed during the second to fourth decades.

Grossly, PNET's of the kidney are typically large with 65% measuring greater than 10 cm in diameter with replacement of the kidney. [2] They tend to be grayish in color, encapsulated and contain focal areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. Microscopically, the tumor is composed of lobular pattern of strikingly uniform round cells; individual cells have a round to ovoid nucleus with a distinct nuclear membrane, fine powdery chromatin, and 1 or 2 small nucleoli. The cytoplasm is ill defined, scanty, usually PAS positive and mitosis are variable. Perivascular pseudo rosettes and Homer-Wright rosettes are common.

To better address the diagnosis, an immunohistochemical analysis is necessary. CD99 (the product of MIC2 gene) greatly aids in recognizing the ES/PNET family of tumors. [5] Many PNET also stain for neural markers, including NSE, Leu-7, S-100 protein, synaptophysin, and PGP9.5. [6]

The most frequent translocation in PNET is t(11;22)(q24;q12), detected in approximately 90% of cases, resulting in EWS-FLI fusion gene. Monoclonal antibodies to FLI1 can be used to detect these tumors. [7]

The differential diagnosis includes Blastemal Wilms, carcinoid, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, the small cell variant of osteosarcoma, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor. [8]

The most important differential is Blastemal Wilms which presents with lump abdomen, hematuria. The common age of presentation is 0-5 years. On gross, it may be difficult to differentiate. Microscopically, both are small round cell tumors with high N/C ratio and both may show rosettes. The presence of nephrogenic rests in approximately 25-40% cases in Wilms is helpful in distinguishing between Wilms tumor from PNET. In the remaining cases immunohistochemistry and molecular biology studies are essential to differentiate.

Immunohistochemically, Wilms tumor is WT1 positive and rarely positive for CD99 while diffuse and strong CD99 expression with rare WT1 expression was detected in PNET. [9] Ellison et al. reported both CD99 and WT1 expression in seven of 30 primary renal PNETs. [10] When both CD99 and WT1 expression are positive, the distinction of PNET and Wilms tumor may be problematic. Nevertheless, age of the patient, morphological features and aggressiveness of the tumor with diffuse strong membranous CD99 and positive NSE have supported to PNET rather than Wilms tumor. Diffuse nuclear WT1 and focal CD99 expression may be interpreted as Wilms tumor rather than PNET. [9]

Immunohistochemical markers like neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin, synaptophysin, and vimentin may be useful to differentiate PNET from other differential diagnosis.

Survival rate of renal PNET is poor despite multidisciplinary approach for treatment and most patients die within 1 year of the diagnosis. On the other hand, with current therapies, more than 90% of children with Wilms' tumor are expected to survive 5 years after initial diagnosis.

Hence, PNET of the kidney needs to be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in young adults presenting with a large kidney mass because it is a highly aggressive tumor and needs multidisciplinary approach for treatment.

 
   References Top

1.
Aghili M, Rafiei E, Mojahed M, Zare M. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor: Does age at diagnosis impact outcomes? Rare Tumors 2012;4:e15.   Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Eble JN, Sauter G, Epstein JI, Sesterhenn IA. World Health Organisation classification of tumors, Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs, Lyon: IARC Press; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Stout AP. A tumour of the ulnar nerve. Proc NY Pathol Soc 1918;18:2-12.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mor Y, Nass D, Raviv G, Neumann Y, Nativ O, Goldwasser B. Malignant peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the kidney. Med Pediatr Oncol 1994;23:437-40.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Folpe AL, Goldblum JR, Rubin BP, Shehata BM, Liu W, Dei Tos AP, et al. Morphologic and immunophenotypic diversity in Ewing family tumors: A study of 66 genetically confirmed cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2005;29:1025-33.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Carter RL, Al-Sams SZ, Corbett RP, Clinton S. A comparative study of immunohistochemical staining for neuron-specific enolase, protein gene product 9.5 and S-100 protein in neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma and other round cell tumors in children. Histopathology 1990;16:461-7.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Rossi S, Orvieto E, Furlanetto A, Laurino L, Ninfo V, Dei Tos AP. Utility of the immunohistochemical detection of FLI-1 expression in round cell and vascular neoplasm using a monoclonal antibody. Mod Pathol 2004;17:547-52.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Friedrichs N, Vorreuther R, Poremba C, Schafer KL, Böcking A, Buettner R, et al. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the differential diagnosis of malignant kidney tumors. Phathol Res Pract 2002;198:563-9.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Özcan A, Çiçek AF, Başal S, Kurt B, Bozlar U, Günhan O. The immunohistochemical features of the renal primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor mimicking adult blastemal wilms tumor: A case report. Gülhane Týp Dergisi 2009;51:112-5.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Ellison DA, Parham DM, Bridge J, Beckwith JB. Immunohistochemistry of primary malignant neuroepithelial tumors of the kidney: A potential source of confusion? A study of 30 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Pathology Center. Hum Pathol 2007;38:205-11.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Report
   Discussion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed4020    
    Printed96    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded270    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal