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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 132-137

Histopathology, pharmacotherapy, and predictors of prostatic malignancy in elderly male patients with raised prostate-specific antigen levels – A prospective study

1 Department of General Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
2 Surgical Division Military Hospital, Pathankot, Punjab, India
3 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth G S Medical College and K E M Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
4 Command Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bodapati Sivaramakrishna
Command Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_68_19

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Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among adult men in the world, and the diagnosis requires biopsy. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test along with digital rectal examination (DRE) increases the detection rate of prostate cancer than DRE alone. The objective of this study was to correlate serum PSA level with histopathological diagnosis, identify the predictors of malignancy, and describe the pharmacotherapy of patients with serum PSA levels >4 ng/ml. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based observational study done among patients who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and PSA levels >4 ng/ml who were planned to undergo prostatic biopsy. DRE followed by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) assessment and guided sextant (6-core) prostatic biopsy was performed. Results: One hundred and four patients were screened and 87 were included. Nineteen patients were diagnosed with malignancy, and among them, eight had bone metastasis. Spearman's correlation coefficient between PSA and malignancy was 0.449 (P ≤ 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that the factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P value) such as increasing age (1.127; 1.013, 1.253; 0.027), nodular prostate (22.668; 4.655, 110.377; P < 0.001), and PSA (1.034; 1.004, 1.064; 0.024) were significant predictors of prostate cancer. All patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were advised a combination therapy with 5-alpha reductase inhibitor and selective alpha-1 receptor antagonist while those with malignancy were prescribed androgen deprivation therapy with antiosteoporosis therapy. Conclusion: In elderly patients with raised PSA levels or suspicious DRE findings, TRUS-guided prostate is recommended to rule out malignancy and plan appropriate management.

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