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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 301-308

Applications of electromotive drug administration in urology


Department of Urology, Guy's Hospital, London, UK

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sachin Malde
Department of Urology, Guy's Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London, SE1 9RT
UK
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DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_152_19

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To review all published evidence regarding the use of Electromotive Drug Administration (EMDA) for the management of urological conditions, focusing on efficacy and safety, and highlighting areas that require further study. The PubMed and Medline databases were searched up to July 23, 2019. All studies reporting the use of EMDA to enhance the intravesical administration of therapeutic drugs for urological conditions were included. Two reviewers independently screened all articles, searched the reference lists of retrieved articles, and performed the data extraction. Thirty-two studies were included. The use of EMDA has been reported in the following urological conditions: (1) nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC); (2) overactive bladder; (3) bladder pain syndrome; (4) radiation cystitis; (5) detrusor acontractility; and (6) for analgesia prior to transurethral procedures. Overall, most studies are nonrandomized trials with small numbers of patients. The use of EMDA is reported to be safe and effective in all these conditions, with the highest level of evidence in NMIBC in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. However, the low overall quality of evidence limits the conclusions that can be reached. The use of EMDA to improve the efficacy of intravesical treatments is promising, but the low overall quality of the evidence base has limited its widespread use. Future studies should compare EMDA to passive diffusion and current standard of care in large, randomized, and long-term studies to determine the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of this modality.


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