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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 111-118

Trends in the surgical management of renal cell carcinoma in a contemporary tertiary care setting

1 Department of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre; Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Alfaisal University, College of Medicine; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sultan Saud Alkhateeb
Department of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_151_20

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Background: In the last three eras, the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased, due to increased radiological studies. The expected 5-year survival rate has become better, associated with the identification of small size renal masses. However, this survival improvement may be secondary to improved surgical techniques and medical therapies for these malignancies. Objectives: The objective was to report the trends of clinical presentation, peri-operative, oncological outcomes, and surgical management trends for RCCs over the period. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective study for adult patients was conducted, who presented with renal mass and were managed between 2008 and 2019. Variables, including demographics, perioperative and pathological outcomes analyzed using descriptive statistics for continuous variables reported as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables values compared by Chi-square test. Survival Analysis calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The level of significance is set at P-value < 0.05. Results: A total of 588 patients underwent surgical treatment for kidney cancer from January 2008 to January 2019. 237 (40.30%) were females and 351 (59.69%) males. The clinical presentation was higher as an incidental diagnosis of 58.67%. 71.25% of patients were from outside Riyadh city. Pathology was mostly clear cell RCC 61.22% and grade 2 (57.48%). Tumor size, surgery time, and length of hospital stay showed a significant difference between the three periods (both P > 0.05). Robotic surgery performed more than open (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the survival time, when compared to patients by the regions and when compared by the primary tumors (Log-Rank P = 0.4821). Patients from the Riyadh region (median = 54.0) had a significantly higher recurrence time (Log-Rank P < 0.0001). Conclusion: There was a rising trend in the incidence of RCC associated with comorbidities and incidental diagnosis. In our study period we found increase in the trend of minimal invasive approach. The size of the tumor, blood loss and operative time decreases over the period of time. The Robotic assisted nephrectomy approach has become increased over the period of time duration in present study.

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