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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 156-162

Predictors of post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy sepsis: The Northern Malaysian experience

1 Department of Urology, Selayang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Department of Surgery (Urology), Johor Specialist Hospital, Johor, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Khai Yeong Teh
Department of Urology, Selayang Hospital, Lebuhraya Selayang-Kepong, 68100 Batu Caves, Selangor
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DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_28_20

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Objectives: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) carries a small risk of postoperative sepsis due to the liberation of bacteria into the patients' bloodstream during stone fragmentation. The study aims to identify the incidence of post-PCNL sepsis in our center, as well as to delineate perioperative characteristics associated with increased rates of sepsis. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review on all PCNLs performed in our center between July 2012 and June 2017, with emphasis on preoperative urine results, intra-operative findings, and postoperative septic complications. Results: Among 425 cases of PCNL performed, 16 (3.76%) developed sepsis postoperatively. Patients with positive preoperative urine cultures were almost four times as likely to develop post-PCNL sepsis compared to those with negative cultures (8.41% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.004). Among patients with positive urine leukocytes and positive urine cultures, the presence of Staghorn calculi and multiple PCNL punctures both predicted significantly higher risks of postoperative sepsis. In contrast, diabetes mellitus and preoperative stenting were not found to be associated with a greater risk of post-PCNL sepsis. Conclusions: Patients who had positive preoperative urine leukocytes and/or cultures, and either harbor Staghorn calculi or are deemed to require more than one puncture on PCNL, were at an increased risk of developing post-PCNL sepsis. Such at-risk patients should be identified preoperatively, given aggressive perioperative antibiotic treatment, and monitored closely for septic complications during the convalescence period.

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