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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 205-209

Synergetic effect of hookah smoking on varicocele-associated male reproductive impairment in the Saudi community in Al Jouf region, Saudi Arabia

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Jouf University, Skaka, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohammed Jayed Alenzi
Jouf University, Skaka, Al Jouf
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/UA.UA_68_20

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Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore the clinical relationship between the varicocele-associated male infertility with hookah smoking practice in the Saudi community in the al Jouf region. Materials and Methods: A total of 192 patients were categorized into two groups; varicocele with (Varicocele-Associated Hooka (VH) group; n = 100) and without smoking (NHV group; n = 92). Laboratory investigations such as hormonal (follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone [LH]), semen analysis were performed. Ultrasonography-based varicocele screening was performed. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Increased prevalence of varicocele Grade 2 (57%) and Grade 3 (52.5%) in HV groups. In contrast, Grade 1 was increased in NHV group (55.6%). A significant (P = 0.05) decrease in testosterone levels in the HV group (2.83 ± 0.21) as compared to NHV group (2.33 ± 0.07) observed. Decreased levels of sperm count (21.96 ± 6.31) and sperm morphology (14.09 ± 0.45) were observed in HV groups as compared to NHV group (22.5 ± 5.49, 14.51 ± 5.02, respectively). HV groups showed the increased diameter of the testicular vein (3.52 ± 0.71) as compared to NHV group (3.42 ± 0.72). Chronic smoking revealed a statistically significant effect on testosterone (P = 0.015) and LH levels (P < 0.041) in the HV group. In addition, hookah smoking sessions per week affect sperm motility (P = 0.02) in the HV group. A significant correlation was observed in sperm count (r = 0.24, P < 0.016) and motility (r = 0.25, P = 0.010) in HV group. Conclusion: Chronic hookah smoking significantly affects the reproductive hormonal and semen parameters in varicocele patients as compared to people with varicocele without smoking. This implies that hookah has an adverse effect on male reproductive and infertility.

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