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   2012| September-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 18, 2012

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Low-grade liquid silicone injections as a penile enhancement procedure: Is bigger better?
Ramesh Sasidaran, Mohd Ali Mat Zain, Normala Hj Basiron
September-December 2012, 4(3):181-186
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102672  PMID:23248528
To report our experience with 5 cases of complications of penile enhancement procedures secondary to liquid silicone injections and our method of management of its debilitating effects. All five patients were treated with excision of penile shaft skin down to buck's fascia followed by resurfacing with split thickness skin grafting. We conclude that penile enhancement procedures with liquid silicone by non-medical personnel could result in devastating consequences. We also demonstrate that a simple method of excision of the entire penile shaft skin and resurfacing with split skin grafting showed improvement in cosmetic as well as functional outcome.
  99,236 1,273 -
The efficacy and safety of topical EMLA cream application for minor surgery of the adult penis
Kostis I Gyftopoulos
September-December 2012, 4(3):145-149
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102658  PMID:23248519
Background and Objectives : A variety of surgical procedures of the penis can be performed under local anesthesia. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of EMLA cream anesthetic in such procedures. Materials and Methods : In total 330 adult patients were subjected to minor penile surgery including: Complete circumcision (73), short frenulum plasty (168), meatotomy (14), fulguration of penile warts (56) and fulguration of urethral (meatal) warts (19). The level of anesthesia obtained by EMLA cream application along with any adverse effects was recorded. Results: The use of EMLA on mucosal lesions provided excellent level of local anesthesia in almost all patients (245/246, 99.5%). Anesthesia of skin lesions was in part influenced by the site of application. Circumcision patients showed the lowest efficacy of the EMLA cream as the majority (~80%) required some form of further anesthesia until the completion of the procedure. No significant adverse effects were noted. A transient erythema was present in almost all mucosal applications. Conclusions: The topical anesthetic EMLA cream is a useful, efficient and safe tool for minor surgical procedures of the penis at the office setting, with the exception of circumcision, where an additional type of anesthesia is likely to be necessary. Side effects can be kept to a minimum when the suggested doses are respected (especially at mucosal application) and the time allowed for action is carefully tailored to the site of application and the type of procedure.
  39,495 2,460 -
Current concepts in the management of adrenal incidentalomas
Prashanth Kanagarajah, Rajinikanth Ayyathurai, Murugesan Manoharan, Govindarajan Narayanan, Bruce R Kava
September-December 2012, 4(3):137-144
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102657  PMID:23248518
Adrenal tumors are among the commonest incidental findings discovered. The increased incidence of diagnosing adrenal incidentalomas is due to the widespread availability and use of noninvasive imaging studies. Extensive research has been conducted to define a cost-effective diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to guide physicians in managing incidental adrenal lesions. However, there is little consensus on the optimal management strategy. Published literature to date, describes a wide spectrum of treatment options ranging from excision of all adrenal lesions regardless of the size and functional status to extensive hormonal and radiological evaluation to avoid surgery. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the presentation, evaluation and management of adrenal incidentalomas. Additionally, we propose a management algorithm to optimally manage these tumors.
  6,277 5,804 3
Cavernous hemangioma of the kidney: A report of two cases and review of the literature
Somika Sethi, Vikash Agarwal, Prem Chopra
September-December 2012, 4(3):187-190
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102674  PMID:23248529
Hemangioma of kidney is a rare benign tumor. Although it may be clinically silent, their main symptom is hematuria, sometimes profuse and relapsing. We report two such cases which presented with episodes of hematuria and were clinically and radiologically diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma. Nephrectomy was performed in both cases and the histopathological appearance were those of a cavernous hemangioma. A literature review of renal hemangioma is also presented.
  8,398 437 -
Clitoromegaly caused by cavernous hemangioma: A rare case report and review of the literature
Bita Geramizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein Anbardar, Saeed Shakeri
September-December 2012, 4(3):175-177
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102669  PMID:23248526
Hemangioma is a common benign neoplasm, but a location such as the clitoris is very rare. However, it is very important to differentiate clitoral hemangioma from enlargement of the clitoris secondary to androgen excess. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of clitoromegaly caused by cavernous hemangioma have been reported in the English literature. Herein, we report our experience with a 16-year-old girl who presented with clitoromegaly and normal hormonal assay that turned out to be clitoral cavernous hemangioma after pathologic examination of the clitoral mass.
  5,302 396 1
Large bifid ureteric calculus in a patient with an ileal conduit
Shanmugasundaram Rajaian, Nitin S Kekre
September-December 2012, 4(3):178-180
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102671  PMID:23248527
Urinary diversion after extirpative surgery of the bladder is done by various methods. Conduit urinary diversion is the most commonly practiced method of urinary diversion. It is relatively easy to perform and has a lower complication rate than other forms of diversion, e.g., orthotopic neobladder and continent cutaneous urinary diversion. Urolithiasis is a known and common complication of urinary diversion. Upper tract calculi in these cases often manifest symptomatically as occurs in the general population. Stones in the conduit can have a variable clinical presentation. Asymptomatic presentation is also noted in a few cases. We report a case of a large silent bifid ureteric calculus within an ileal conduit in a woman who had undergone urinary diversion 32 years earlier. Plain X-ray of the abdomen is the only investigation necessary to rule out urinary lithiasis in those who have had urinary diversion for a long time. This simple tool can diagnose the condition well in advance and aid in planning the management of this condition.
  4,694 338 1
Endoscopic removal of a proximal urethral stent using a holmium laser: Case report and literature review
Francisco Botelho, Anil A Thomas, Ranko Miocinovic, Kenneth W Angermeier
September-December 2012, 4(3):191-194
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102676  PMID:23248530
Urethral stents were initially developed for the management of urethral strictures and obstructive voiding disorders in select patients. Urethral stent complications are common and may require stent explantation, which is often quite challenging. We present our experience with endoscopic removal of an encrusted UroLume proximal urethral stent in a 72-year-old male using a holmium laser. The literature on various management options and outcomes for urethral stent removal is reviewed. Endoscopic removal of proximal urethral stents is feasible and safe and should be considered as the primary treatment option in patients requiring stent extraction.
  4,587 307 -
Role of paclitaxel and platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk penile cancer
Vanita Noronha, Vijay Patil, Vikas Ostwal, Hemant Tongaonkar, Ganesh Bakshi, Kumar Prabhash
September-December 2012, 4(3):150-153
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102659  PMID:23248520
Aim: To study the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel and platinum doublet chemotherapy in penile cancer patients with high-risk features of local failure. Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis was done of patients with 19 carcinoma of the penis who were offered adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and platinum combination. The data regarding the surgical details, high-risk features for which chemotherapy was offered, chemotherapy toxicity details (in accordance with CTCAE vs 3), failure pattern, and survival data were noted. SPSS version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. Results : Median age of patients was 48 years. Fifteen patients received paclitaxel in combination with cisplatin and four received paclitaxel with carboplatin in view of their low serum creatinine clearance. The treatment was completed by 12 patients (63.2%). Of 79 planned cycles, 50 were taken. The treatment was well tolerated with grade 3-4 gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 1 patient, grade 3 neurological toxicity in one and grade 5 neutropenia in one patient. Treatment related death occured in one patient. The median follow-up was 15.33 months and 6 loco-regional relapsed had taken place. The estimated median DFS was 16.2 months and the estimated median OS was not reached. The estimated DFS for treatment completed patients was 23.13 months as against 2.16 months for patients not completing treatment. Conclusion: The platinum and taxane doublet chemotherapy was found to be safe and effective.
  3,453 1,286 4
Trans-vaginal repair of gynecological supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistulae: A worthy option!
N Rajamaheswari, Archana Bharti Chhikara, K Seethalakshmi, Anupama Bail, Sugandha Agarwal
September-December 2012, 4(3):154-157
Objective: To determine the appropriateness of vaginal approach for gynecological supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistulae. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive women with gynecological supratrigonal Vesico Vaginal Fistulae (VVF) repaired at the fistula unit of Urogynecology department between 1996 and 2011 was done.Out of 48 cases of supratrigonal VVF of gynecological origin identified; 34 (70.8%) cases were repaired vaginally and 14 (36.8%) abdominally with a mean follow-up period of 52.8 (2-132) months. Results: Overall 95.8% were successfully cured at first attempt. The success rate of vaginal repair (94.8%) at first attempt was comparable to that of abdominal repair (100%) (P value = 0.8946). Amongst two failed vaginal repairs, one was successfully cured by subsequent vaginal repair and other by abdominal repair. Conclusion: Three fourth gynecological supratrigonal VVF can be repaired vaginally in first attempt with success rate comparable to abdominal approach. On the basis of this study we postulate that vaginal approach should be preferred over abdominal approach for repair of all vaginally accessible supratrigonal VVF of gynecological origin.
  4,083 568 1
Clinical, endocrinological and histopathological patterns of infertile Saudi men subjected to testicular biopsy: A retrospective study from a single center
Khaled Madbouly, Qais Al-hooti, Abdullah Albkri, Samir Ragheb, Khaled Alghamdi, Abdullah Al-Jasser
September-December 2012, 4(3):166-171
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102666  PMID:23248524
Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of testicular biopsies as well as the etiology of azoospermia and severe oligospermia in Saudi men referred for tertiary care. To correlate testicular histology with patients' clinical and hormonal profiles. Materials and Methods: Charts of men subjected to testicular biopsies in the last 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Relative history and physical examination findings were reported. Results of male fertility profile tests and semen analysis of at least two ejaculates were collected. Reported histopathology was obtained. Results: Reports of 229 patients were included; 199 (86.9%) with azoospermia and 30 (13.1%) with severe oligospermia. The mean (SD) age was 30.6 (6.4) years. A small right or left testis was reported in 88 (38.4%) and 87 (38%) of the patients, respectively. The mean (SD) testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) values were 17.2 (7.2) nmol/L and 13.1 (10.9) IU/L, respectively. Hypospermatogenesis was the most common histology encountered (36.5%), followed by Sertoli cell-only (SCO) histology (31.5%). Low testicular volume (P = 0.000), high FSH (P = 0.001) and high leutenizing hormone (LH) (P = 0.001) were found to be of significantly adverse effect on spermatogenesis. Despite having bilateral small testes, high serum FSH and LH, 24.3% of our patients showed active spermatogenesis. Conclusions: Hypospermatogenesis was the most common pattern of spermatogenic defect in our patients. SCO histology was the most common pattern in patients with small testes, primary testicular failure, primary infertility and azoospermia. Low testicular volume, high FSH and LH are significantly associated with impaired spermatogenesis. Even with severe male factor infertility disorders, infertile men can have some spermatogenesis.
  3,820 416 1
Outcome of bilateral ureteroscopic retrieval of stones in a single session
Majid Mushtaque, CL Gupta, Imtiyaz Shah, M Ashraf Khanday, Samina Ali Khanday
September-December 2012, 4(3):158-161
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102662  PMID:23248522
Aim: Evaluation of bilateral ureteroscopic retrieval of stones as a single-stage procedure in terms of clearance of the stones, complications of the procedure and duration of hospital stay. A successful outcome was considered when both ureters were free of stones without any major complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with bilateral ureteric stones were treated ureteroscopically from March 2006 to September 2009 in the department of Surgery (Urology unit). Majority of the patients were in their third and fourth decade of life with 38 males and 22 females. A single session bilateral ureteroscopic retrieval of stones was done using a 7.8 Fr semirigid ureteroscope. A 0.038-inch guide wire was used and advanced under direct vision, and monitored by C-arm X-ray image intensifier. Balloon dilatation of the intramural ureters was required in 82 renal units. The stones were either extracted directly or disintegrated into small pieces by lithotripsy (pneumatic) before extraction. Ureteric stenting was required in 39 patients. Patients were followed for a period of 3-12 months. Results: A total of 60 patients (120 renal units) with bilateral ureteric stones were treated ureteroscopically. The stone size in the treated patients was in the range 6-20 mm. The stones were radio-opaque in 47 patients and radiolucent in 13 patients. Single stone was present in all except two patients. Operative time ranged between 40 and 120 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 51 (85%) patients following single-session procedure of which 39 (76.4%) were stonefree intraoperatively and another 12 (23.5%) were cleared of the stones in 4 weeks follow-up. Six patients were stonefree unilaterally. Failed procedures were managed with repeated ureteroscopy, DJ stenting and ESWL or open ureterolithotomy. Intraoperatively false passage or minor ureteric perforations were seen in six patients. Postoperative complications included abdominal pain in 10, persistent fever in 4 and hematuria in 2 patients. No long-term complications were observed. Most of the patients were discharged in 2 days. Conclusion: Bilateral same-session ureteroscopy is a safe and effective procedure in the management of bilateral ureteral stones. The results are comparable to unilateral or staged bilateral procedures.
  3,618 430 1
Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in asymptomatic women
Havva Erdem, Umran Yildirim, Ali Tekin, Ali Kayikci, Ali Kemal Uzunlar, Cem Sahiner
September-December 2012, 4(3):172-174
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102667  PMID:23248525
Most bladder tumors are derived from the urothelium. Benign mesenchymal tumors are rare. Leiomyomas account for less than 0.43% of all bladder tumors. Genitourinary leiomyomata may arise in any anatomic structure containing smooth muscle. They have been reported to involve single or multiple organs. Since they may also mimic malignant lesions, they should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of any pelvic mass, with a possibility of being asymptomatic and discovered incidentally by radiographic imaging. We, herein, report a case illustrating clinical and pathological features in particular immunohistochemistry, and discuss its etiology and differential diagnosis.
  3,490 347 1
Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: A series of one hundred cases performed by the same surgeon
José M Campero, Christián G Ramos, Raúl Valdevenito, Alejandro Mercado, Juan Fullá
September-December 2012, 4(3):162-165
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102664  PMID:23248523
Introduction: Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has become the first-line surgical technique for the management of renal tumors smaller than 4 cm. Its main advantages are an excellent oncologic control together with the preservation of nephron units. Moreover, it implies a shorter length of hospital stay, less postoperative pain, and shorter recovering times for patients. Context: We included 100 patients who consecutively underwent LPN between years 2000 and 2010 in our institution. Aims: The aim was to present our experience and to compare it with the results reported in the literature by other centers. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients (67 men and 33 women) who underwent LPN within years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study. In all cases, surgery was performed by the same surgeon (JMC). Data were collected retrospectively, including clinical and histopathologic information, as well as surgical and functional results. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and SPSS v17 software. A P-value < 0.05 was considered significant in all the analyses. Results: The indication for LPN was a renal tumor or a complex renal cyst in the 96% of the cases. A retroperitoneal or transperitoneal approach was performed in the 62% and 38% of the cases, respectively. The average size of the tumor was 3.3 cm (range 1-8). The mean surgical time was 103.5 min (range 40-204). The mean estimated blood loss was 193.7 cc. The average hospital length of stay was 50.2 h. Six (6%) patients had complications related to the surgery. The majority (n = 2) was due to intraoperative bleeding. With an average follow-up time of 42.1 months, there is no tumor recurrence reported up to now. Conclusions: Our results are similar to those reported in the international literature. LPN is a challenging surgical technique that in hands of a trained and experienced surgeon has excellent and reproducible results for the management of small renal masses and cysts.
  2,547 385 1
Urinary pH, melamine, and kidney stone formation
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
September-December 2012, 4(3):195-195
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102678  PMID:23248531
  2,078 343 -
Comment on: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy for large ureteric stone
Mohd. Nazli Kamarulzaman
September-December 2012, 4(3):195-196
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102679  PMID:23248532
  1,940 252 1
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the bladder
Arvind P Ganpule
September-December 2012, 4(3):196-196
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.102681  PMID:23248533
  1,827 250 -