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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| April-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 3, 2013

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Antibiotic prophylaxis for transurethral urological surgeries: Systematic review
Basim S Alsaywid, Grahame H. H. Smith
April-June 2013, 5(2):61-74
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.109993  PMID:23798859
The use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infection and bacteremia (sepsis) following endoscopic urologic procedures is a controversial topic. Evidence in the literature revealed that urological instrumentation is associated with increased incidence of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the risk of urinary tract infection in patients who had transurethral urological surgeries. We have selected all RCTs of adult population who underwent all different types of transurethral urological surgery, including cystoscopy, transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumor, and received prophylactic antibiotics or placebo/no treatment. At first, more than 3000 references were identified and reviewed; of which 42 studies with a total of 7496 patients were included in the final analysis. All those trials were analyzing antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo/no treatment, and they were significantly favoring antibiotic use in reducing all outcomes, including bacteriuria (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.46, P < 0.0001) with moderate heterogeneity detected (I 2 48%), symptomatic UTI (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.51, P < 0.0001) with no significant heterogeneity was detected (I 2 = 17%), bacteremia (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.82, P < 0.0001) with no noted heterogeneity (I 2 = 0%), and fever ≥38.5 Celsius (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.73, P = 0.003); also, there was no noted heterogeneity (I 2 = 0%). However, using antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of low grade temperature (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11, P = 0.20) or in moderate grade temperature (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.48, P = 0.89). Antibiotic prophylaxis appears to be an effective intervention in preventing urinary tract infections and its sequels following transurethral urological surgeries in patients with preoperative sterile urine.
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CD10 and CA19.9 immunohistochemical expression in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder
Ahmed Salahaldeen Mohammed, Husam Hasson Ali, Ban Jumaa Qasim, Mohammed Kassim Chaloob
April-June 2013, 5(2):81-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110002  PMID:23798862
Background: Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is the most common malignancy affecting the urinary tract ranking the 5 th among males and the 9 th among females' cancers in Iraq. The prognosis depends largely on the histological grade and stage of the tumor at diagnosis; however, there is no reliable parameter predicting the risk of recurrence or progression; molecular and immunological markers may be required to estimate the individual prognosis of patients as well as for effective diagnosis and treatment. Objectives: To evaluate CD10 and CA19.9 immunohistochemical expression in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to correlate this expression with the grade and stage of the tumor. Materials and Methods: This study was retrospectively designed. Forty-nine cystoscopy specimens of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder were retrieved from the archival materials of the Specialized Surgical Hospital and Al-Khadhmiya Teaching Hospital in Baghdad for the period from January 2010 to June 2011. Three sections of 5-μm thickness were taken from each case. One section was stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin; the other two were stained immunohistochemically with CA19.9 and CD10. Results: Immunohistochemical expression of CA19.9 and CD10 had a significant correlation with WHO 2004 grade of urothelial carcinoma. There was no significant correlation between CA19.9 and CD10 immunohistochemical expression with stage. Conclusions: CA19.9 and CD10 immunohistochemical expression could be of value in assisting the differentiation between high and low-grade urothelial carcinoma cases and consequently in determining the prognosis in such cases.
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Management of impacted proximal ureteral stone: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy versus ureteroscopy with holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy
Mostafa Khalil
April-June 2013, 5(2):88-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110004  PMID:23798864
Objective: Prospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and ureteroscopy with Holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy (URSL) as a primary treatment for impacted stone in the proximal ureter. Patients and Methods: A total of 82 patients with a single impacted stone in the proximal ureter were included in the study. Patients were allocated into two groups according to patient preference for either procedure. The first group included 37 patients who were treated by SWL and the second group included 45 patients treated by URSL. The preoperative data and treatment outcomes of both procedures were compared and analyzed. Results: There was no difference as regards to patient and stone characters between the two groups. There was significantly higher mean session number and re-treatment rate in the SWL group in comparison to URSL group (1.5 ± 0.8 vs. 1.02 ± 0.15 session, and 43.2% vs. 2.2%, respectively). At one month, the stone-free rate of the URSL group was statistically significantly higher than that of the SWL group (80% vs. 67.6%, respectively). The stone-free rate at three months was still higher in the URSL group, but without statistically significant difference (80.2% vs. 78.4%, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of complications between the SWL and URSL (24.3% vs. 15.6%, respectively). Conclusion: Both procedures can be used effectively and safely as a primary treatment for impacted stone in the proximal ureter; however, the URSL has a significantly higher initial stone-free rate and lower re-treatment rate.
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Do the values of prostate specific antigen obtained from fresh and dried urine reflect the serum measurements?
Hasan S Saglam, Osman Köse, Fatma Özdemir, Öztug Adsan
April-June 2013, 5(2):99-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110006  PMID:23798866
Aim: To investigate if free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (tPSA) values obtained from simultaneously collected urine, fresh and dried on filter paper, reflect the serum free and total PSA. Materials and Methods : The sera and 20 cc first voided urine from 33 consecutive men aged between 40 and 84 (mean 61 ± 12), were collected in the morning and delivered to the laboratory. Three different aliquots of 100 microgram urine were taken with automatic pipette and dropped on 3 certain areas of a filter paper and allowed to dry for each patient. On each paper, borders of dried urine were marked. PSA values were obtained from the sera and fresh urine samples and recorded. Later on particular days dried urine samples were dissolved and eventually PSA values were derived and recorded again. The results were compared to each other. Correlations were evaluated by using an SPSS statistics program. Results: Serum PSA values correlated weakly (r < 0.24) with fresh and dried urine PSA values. While PSA in fresh and dried urine samples showed strong correlation (0.5 < r < 0.74), a very strong correlation (r > 0.75) among PSA values of dried urine samples of 1-day, 7- and 28-days, were seen. Conclusions : We conclude that PSA values obtained from fresh and dried urine could not reflect serum PSA values. But, because dried urine on a filter paper can be stable for years, it could be used for forensic purposes.
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Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma a diagnostic dilemma: A case report in a 30-year-old woman
Anadi Roy Chowdhury, Debasis Chakraborty, Palash Bhattacharya, Ranjan Kumar Dey
April-June 2013, 5(2):119-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110012  PMID:23798872
Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC), also known as multilocular clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is a rare cystic tumor of the kidney with an excellent outcome. It occurs in about 3.1-6% of the conventional RCC. It is usually included in the group of tumors of undetermined malignant potential with low nuclear grade. We present a case of MCRCC in a 30-year-old female patient presenting incidentally as an apparently benign-looking multicystic space occupying lesion in the upper pole of right kidney. Right-sided simple nephrectomy was performed, and on histopathologic examination it was found to be MCRCC, stage 1 with Fuhrman nuclear grade 1. Immunohistochemistry with epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin confirmed the diagnosis.
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Weekly intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) alternating with epirubicin in Ta and T1 urothelial bladder cancer: An approach to decrease BCG toxicity
Bedeir Ali-El-Dein, Tamer S Barakat, Adel Nabeeh, El-Housseiny I Ibrahiem
April-June 2013, 5(2):103-108
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110008  PMID:23798868
Context: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is the standard treatment for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, its toxicity is a major concern. Aim: If we reduce the number of BCG doses by half and replace the second half with epirubicin, we may have a lower toxicity while maintaining the same efficacy of BCG. To test this hypothesis, we conducted this study as an update of our previous report. Setting and Design: The study included 607 patients with Ta and T1 NMIBC between January 1994 and December 2008. Materials and Methods: After transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), the patients received weekly doses of 120 mg BCG alternating with 50 mg epirubicin for six weeks (three weekly doses of each). Maintenance was given. Recurrence, progression rates, and toxicity were assessed. End points were progression, recurrence, and cancer-specific survival. Results: A total of 532 patients were eligible for evaluation (mean age: 58 years; median follow-up: 45 months). Of these, 291 (55%) were free, 157 (29.5%) showed recurrence, and 84 (15.8%) showed muscle-invasive progression. Toxicity developed in 221 patients. These were mild in the majority (167), whereas 10 developed hematuria, 30 severe cystitis, and five systemic complications. The rate of permanent therapy discontinuation was 3.8%. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS package version 16 and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate survival. Conclusions: Reducing the frequency of BCG instillations by half and replacing the second half with epirubicin results in a similar efficacy and a lower toxicity compared with historical cases receiving BCG alone. However, further trials are required to support these results.
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Composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland: A case report with immunohistochemical study
Ram Nawal Rao, Nidhi Singla, Kamlesh Yadav
April-June 2013, 5(2):115-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110011  PMID:23798871
Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla consisting of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma are rare tumors accounting for less than 3% of all sympathoadrenal tumors. These tumors display more than one line of differentiation in which normal and neoplastic chromaffin cells are capable of differentiating into ganglion cells under the influence of nerve growth factors. To the best of our knowledge, we report the second case with a composite tumor of the adrenal medulla in a normotensive patient from India.
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Simultaneous renal clear cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor in one case
Jin Wen, Han-Zhong Li, Zhi Gang Ji, Wei Gang-Yan, Bing Bing Shi
April-June 2013, 5(2):122-123
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110013  PMID:23798873
Renal cell carcinoma is a tumor in kidney, while gastrointestinal stromal tumors are localized in the stomach and small intestine. They seldom occur simultaneously in sporadic case, both of which were suspective to sunitinib, a tyrosine kinases (RTKs) inhibitor. Our current case is novel in that concurrent RTK-related tumors are involved in one case. One possible explanation is the presence of some activating mutations.
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Umbilical cord prolapsed through urethra: An unusual presentation of a vesico-uterine fistula
Aneela G Kamil, Mohsen EL Mekresh
April-June 2013, 5(2):124-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110014  PMID:23798874
Umbilical cord prolapse occurs when a loop of cord is present below the presenting part when the amniotic membranes are ruptured. The incidence is 0.2% of total births. The case presented here is unusual because the definition of cord prolapse cannot be applied to it and the lady did not complain of any history of urinary incontinence or hematuria. The presentation of umbilical cord through maternal urethra led to the speculation of an opening between the anterior uterine wall and the bladder. Fetal demise was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. At laprotomy, a communication was found between the bladder and the uterus thus letting the cord traverse through the bladder.
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Transmesocolic robotic extended pyelolithotomy of a large gas-containing renal stone: Case report and review of the literature
Ted B Manny, Julia S Manny, Ashok K Hemal
April-June 2013, 5(2):126-128
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110015  PMID:23798875
We present the fifth case in the world literature of a gas-containing urinary stone. Our patient is a 31-year-old woman referred for left flank pain and gross hematuria who was noted on imaging to have a 6.5 cm left renal pelvis stone containing gas. Cultures revealed Escherichia coli from the urine and stone material. Chemistry revealed underlying gouty diathesis. The stone was removed using robotic extended pyelolithotomy. Overall, renal function remained unchanged while drainage improved on nucleotide renography. Review of the world literature suggests that gas-containing renal stones are invariably associated with emphysematous pyelonephritis commonly caused by E. coli and Klebsiella. Contributing factors to gas-containing stone formation include urinary stasis, metabolic mineral derangement and, in a minority of the cases, diabetes.
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An abnormally large prostatic utricle cyst associated with unilateral renal agenesis
Yasmin A Momin, Nitin P Dhende, Bharat A Ghodke, Sameer A. H. Ansari, Grace F D'Costa, Vinod R Mahajan
April-June 2013, 5(2):129-131
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110016  PMID:23798876
Prostatic utricle cyst is an uncommon congenital disorder associated with urogenital anomalies. We present a case of an abnormally large prostatic utricle cyst filling the whole of the abdominal cavity with unilateral renal agenesis in an 8-year-old male child.
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Urinary prostate specific antigen, usefulness is still a matter of controversy
Ihab Ahmed Hekal
April-June 2013, 5(2):102-102
  - 1,791 270
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin for bladder cancer: What is known? What is not? What is next?
Khaled Madbouly
April-June 2013, 5(2):108-109
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A step towards refining prognostication in individual patients with bladder cancer
Muhammed Mubarak
April-June 2013, 5(2):85-87
  - 2,065 270
Prophylactic antibiotic: The need for clear guidelines
Mohammed Mahdi Muqarmea
April-June 2013, 5(2):75-75
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Laparoscopy-assisted orchiopexy versus laparoscopic two-stage fowler stephens orchiopexy for nonpalpable testes: Comparative study
Abdulrahman Alzahem
April-June 2013, 5(2):110-114
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110010  PMID:23798870
Background/Purpose : To assess the outcome of the primary laparoscopy-assisted orchiopexy (LAO) and the laparoscopic two-stage Fowler Stephens orchiopexy (FSO) for managing patients with nonpalpable testis in terms of safety, feasibility and efficacy. Materials and Methods: This study included 94 patients (110 nonpalpable testes) who underwent laparoscopy at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh between July 1998 and June 2012. Patients were evaluated postoperatively to check the location and size of testes and to exclude any other complications. Results: Mean age at presentation was 24+/−19 months (9-96 months). Orchiectomy was done for 5 atrophic testes. 36 open orchiopexy was done for 29 canalicular testes and 7 peeping testes. 35 LAO were done for 1 canalicular testis, 5 peeping testes, 16 low intraabdominal testes and 13 high intraabdominal testes. 34 FSO were done for 23 high intraabdominal testes, 9 low intraabdominal testes and 2 peeping testes. Median follow up was 12 months (1-84 months) and 6 patients were lost to follow up. The overall success rates for LAO and FSO were 88% and 63%, respectively. Overall testicular atrophy rates were 3% and 30% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 0.08 [95% CI, 0.01-0.69], P = 0.006). For high intraabdominal testes, the atrophy rates were 3% and 20% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 0.14 [95% CI, 0.02-1.21, P = 0.049).Testicular displacement rates were 9% and 7% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 1.5, 95% CI, 0.24-9.59, P = 0.514). Conclusions: Laparoscopy provides a safe and accurate modality for diagnosing and managing patients with nonpalpable testes. LAO appears to be feasible and effective in management of high intraabdominal testes. Further well-conducted comparative studies are needed.
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Increased rate of positive biopsies using a combination of MR-Tomography, spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging prior to prostate biopsies in patients with persistent elevated prostate-specific antigen values: A retrospective analysis
A Lunacek, J Simon, R Bernt, M Huber, E Plas, C Mrstik
April-June 2013, 5(2):76-80
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110001  PMID:23798861
Purpose: Persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values following negative biopsies result in a diagnostic dilemma. In order to improve detection rates in patients with former negative biopsies and persistently elevated PSA values, magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) were performed prior to prostate rebiopsies. Materials and Methods: Over a 14-month period, 67 patients (mean age of 66 years) with a history of 1-5 negative biopsies underwent endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T2-weighted MRT MRS and DW-MRI before an additional prostate biopsy was performed. Subsequently, 5 contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies were performed according to a 10-core systematic scheme. Out of the 67 men, 25 patients had positive biopsies and opted for radical prostatectomy. Histological evaluation of cancer localization, PSA, diameters of primary tumors, numbers and diameters of satellite tumors, prostate volume, and staging pathology was performed. These findings were compared with MRI and MRS results. Results: Serum PSA levels ranged from 3.1 to 19.5 g/ml (median level of 7.96 ng/ml). After the 25 patients underwent radical prostatectomy, analysis of 20 whole-mount sections of 25 radical retropubic prostatectomy (RPE) specimens presented results agreeing with the tumor location from MRI and MRS data. Conclusions: The aim of image-guided diagnostics should be to provide more critical information prior to biopsy. Furthermore, the acquisition of such data is important for better risk stratification in therapeutic decisions.
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Chordee without hypospadias: Operative classification and its management
Sunita Singh, Jiledar Rawat, Shiv Narayan Kureel, Anand Pandey
April-June 2013, 5(2):93-98
DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.110005  PMID:23798865
Context: Developing countries. Aims: To propose a operative classification of Chordee without hypospadias (CWH) with its management. Settings and Design: Tertiary referral centre; Retrospective study from January 2000 to January 2011. Materials and Methods: Total 26 patients were classified peroperatively into sixtypes (A: Cutaneous chordee→ Degloving skin and dartos (1/26); B: Fibrous chordee→ chordectomy (4/26);C: Corporocavernosalchordee→ Corporoplasty ± Urethral mobilization (4/26); D: Urethral tethering with Hypoplastic urethra→ Urethral mobilization ± urethral reconstruction because of hypoplastic urethra (14/26); E: Congenital short urethra→ excision of urethra from the meatus and urethroplasty (2/26); and F: Complex chordee→ Degloving ± Corporoplasty ± urethroplasty (1/26 patients).The follow-up over 6 months to 9 years were analyzed. Statistical Analysis : SPSS soft ware version 17.0 for Windows. Results: The mean age of surgery was 5.33 ± 0.11 years. The success rate defined on uroflowmetry and voiding cystourethrography was 65.6%. The coronal urethra-cutaneous fistula developed in 26.9% (7/26) {including 7.7% (3/26) of associated metal stenosis}. The urethral stricture developed in 3.8% (1/26). Conclusions: CWH needs stepwise surgical management. The operative classification may help in better understanding and management of this difficult entity. Meticulous tissue handling and urethroplasty is needed for good and promising results.
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